Dr. Caroline chose cutting-edge functional lab vendors based on accuracy of testing, best price point, and explanation of findings on lab reports.

Patients at Balance Atlanta receive labs at the wholesale doctor cost, thereby saving both doctor and clients hundreds of dollars.

Dr. Caroline charges a case management fee to assess lab results and consult with the client. Fees vary depending on the complexity of the case.

While we cannot guarantee any testing or nutritional consulting will be covered by your insurance carrier, we will provide you with the necessary paperwork. You may use Health Savings Account (HSA) funds to cover the cost of these services. Assessment includes lab fee at the sharply discounted non-insurance price and the doctor’s consulting time to analyze results and review findings with client.

Optional functional medicine and lifestyle coaching programs based on the patient’s desire and need will be discussed at the doctor-client lab report of findings visit. Patients will meet with the doctor at Balance Atlanta prior to receiving lab requisitions and test kits.

Please review the websites of laboratories offering functional medicine testing for more information.

The following are tests frequently ordered at Balance Atlanta:

​Your Whole Body - This is the foundation, where we start.

 

We typically begin with the BioPanel to obtain a thorough understanding of how your entire body – all organs and systems – are working by analyzing blood and urine markers. While Balance Atlanta offers dozens of lab tests, we find it is practical (and cost effective) to see a detailed view of the big picture first rather than jumping right into SIBO, stool, allergy, autoimmune testing, for instance. If lab clients choose to work with Dr. Caroline, they often find their is little need for further testing after their health improves.

67 blood biomarkers + 13 items in urinalysis:

Blood sugar management; cardiovascular health; immune activity; electrolyte balance; anemia analysis; thyroid stability; lipid ratio; adrenal stress response; liver, kidney, gallbladder function.

The thyroid section in this panel is carefully selected to reveal certain essential mechanisms that may be important for proper thyroid hormone synthesis and function. This unique panel gives an unprecedented perspective to the various biosystems with expanded markers pertaining to thyroid physiology. 

Once you order the BioPanel from this page or by calling the Balance Atlanta office, we will send you by email the lab requisition form upon payment, as well as further instructions. When we receive the results from LabCorp and Dr. Caroline has analyzed them thoroughly, we will give you a call to schedule and in-person or Telehealth meeting to discuss your findings. Your meeting will be 60-minutes long and you will receive hardcopies of the lab results and OptimalDX report. 

Includes LabCorp Report; Functional Health Report exclusive to Balance Atlanta; Dr. Caroline’s consulting time to analyze results privately; one full hour appointment with patient to review lab findings; personalized explanation to gain an understanding the cause of specific health issues relating to lab + body profile; preliminary supplement, nutrition and lifestyle recommendations to regain wellness. 

Lab Markers Tested:

  • Glucose
  • Hemoglobin A1C
  • BUN
  • Creatinine
  • eGFR Non-African American
  • eGFR African American
  • Sodium; Potassium
  • Chloride
  • CO2
  • Anion Gap
  • Uric Acid
  • Total Protein
  • Albumin
  • Globulin
  • Calcium
  • Phosphorus
  • Magnesium
  • Alkaline
  • Phosphatase
  • AST
  • ALT
  • LDH  
  • Bilirubin
  • GGT
  • Serum Iron
  • Ferritin
  • TIBC
  • Cholesterol
  • Triglycerides
  • LDL Cholesterol
  • HDL Cholesterol
  • VLDL Cholesterol
  • Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
  • T4 Total
  • T4 Free
  • T3 Total
  • T3 Free
  • T3 Uptake
  • Free Thyroxine Index
  • Reverse T3
  • Thyroid Peroxidase
  • Thyroglobulin
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Homocysteine
  • Fibrinogen
  • Vitamin D (25-OH) 
  • Total WBCs
  • Red Blood Cells
  • Hemoglobin
  • Hematocrit 
  • MCV
  • MCH
  • MCHC
  • RDW
  • Platelets
  • Neutrophils
  • Lymphocytes
  • Monocytes
  • Eosinophils
  • Basophils
  • Occult Blood in Urine
  • Specific Gravity
  • pH
  • Protein in Urine
  • Glucose in Urine
  • Leukocyte Estrase
  • Nitrite
  • Bilirubin
  • Urobilinogen
  • Urine Sediment
  • Ketones

INCLUDED – What We Measure:

  • Blood Sugar Regulation
  • Kidney Function
  • Electrolyte Status
  • Metabolic Status
  • Adrenal Function
  • Protein Status
  • Mineral Status
  • Liver Function
  • Gallbladder Function
  • Iron Markers
  • Lipids
  • Cardiovascular Risk
  • Thyroid Function
  • Inflammation
  • Red Blood Cell Function
  • Immune Function
  • Acid Base Ratio
  • Toxicity
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Inflammation
  • Vitamin Status
  • Fat Status
  • Carbohydrate Statu
  • Hydration Status

INCLUDED – OptimalDX Report and Action:

  • Documents from Lab

  • Clinical analysis by doctor

  • Review of findings with client

  • Optimal DX Report

  • Functional Body Systems

  • Probability of Dysfunction

  • Accessory Systems

  • Nutrient Status

  • Clinical Dysfunctions

  • Blood Test Results

  • Blood Test Score

  • Blood Test History

  • Out of Optimal Range

  • Health Improvement Plan

  • Further Testing Recs

  • Detailed Appendix

  • What to Look For

  • Discounted Lab Fees

  • Further testing recommendations

  • Lifestyle modification report

  • Educational resources

The panel and report of findings does NOT include ongoing health coaching with the doctor or products.

Options to purchase concierge consulting packages are available.

Lab LabCorp for the blood/urine sample, Balance Atlanta analyzes the results.

ClickSample Report OptimalDx

Nutrient Status, Energy Metabolism, Amino Acids, Antioxidant Levels

 

300 Micronutrient Test

SpectraCell’s Micronutrient test provides the most comprehensive nutritional analysis available by measuring functional deficiencies at the cellular level. It is an assessment of how well the body utilizes 31 vitamins, minerals, amino/fatty acids, antioxidants, and metabolites, while conveying the body’s need for these micronutrients that enable the body to produce enzymes, hormones, and other substances essential for proper growth, development, and good health. Repletion recommendations are made based on need.

Why use the SpectraCell Micronutrient test?

What truly makes our test unique is that it measures the functional  level and capability of micronutrients present within white blood cells, where metabolism takes place and where micronutrients do their job—thus taking a person’s biochemical individuality into account. Unlike static serum measurements, which only assess the concentration of nutrients present outside of the cell (extracellular) and only provide a glimpse of your health, SpectraCell’s Micronutrient test is a long term assessment (4-6 months) that addresses the functional impact (performance) of micronutrients—what really matters. 

Why is nutrient status important?

Virtually all metabolic and developmental processes that take place in the body require micronutrients, and strong evidence suggests that subtle vitamin, mineral, and antioxidantdeficiencies can contribute to degenerative processes such as arthritis, cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

Evaluating micronutrient status can therefore be the first step in identifying metabolic inadequacies while shedding light on the possible underlying causes of complex chronic conditions. 

When should a micronutrient test be considered?

Extensive scientific and clinical studies spanning 50 years have repeatedly demonstrated that micronutrient deficiencies can adversely affect health. These deficiencies can set the stage for chronic disease and compromised immune health at any stage in life, particularly if they persist.

Clinical Applications:

  • Cardiovascular disease

  • Cancer

  • Diabetes

  • Neurological disorders/Alzheimer’s

  • Autism and other spectrum disorders

  • Mood disorders

  • Fatigue

  • Osteoporosis

  • Fertility issues

  • Weight issues

  • Sports performance optimization

Tested – Vitamins & Minerals, Amino Acids, Antioxidants, Carbohydrate Metabolism:

  • Vitamin B1

  • Vitamin B2

  • Vitamin B3

  • Vitamin B6

  • Vitamin B12

  • Folate

  • Pantothenate

  • Biotin

  • Vitamin D3

  • Vitamin A

  • Vitamin K2

  • Manganese

  • Calcium

  • Zinc

  • Copper

  • Magnesium

  • Serine

  • Glutamine

  • Asparagine

  • Choline

  • Inositol

  • Carnitine

  • Oleic Acid

  • Glutathione

  • Cysteine

  • Coenzyme Q10

  • Selenium

  • Vitamin E

  • Alpha Lipoic Acid

  • Vitamin C

Expected Turnaround Time: 10-14 business days.

LabSpectracell

ClickSample Report

 

A Comprehensive Test for Identifying Functional Nutritional Deficiencies and Insufficiencies

Why Use the NutrEval FMV Profile?

The NutrEval FMV® is both a blood and urine test that evaluates over 125 biomarkers and assesses the body’s functional need for 40 antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids, amino acids, digestive support, and other select nutrients. Personalized recommendations for nutrients are determined by using an algorithm based on the patient’s test findings. The NutrEval Plasma and NutrEval FMV (first morning void) differ based on which sample type is used to measure amino acids, plasma or urine.

Introducing NutrEval® with Genomics

We are excited to announce that we will now be offering select genomics testing (SNPs) on our most complete nutritional profiles: NutrEval FMV amino acids and NutrEval Plasma amino acids.

Assessment of these select genomic markers in conjunction with the NutrEval supports broadened clinical insight and enhanced personalization of therapeutics in an array of patient conditions such as depression, anxiety, cardiovascular disease, cardiometabolic syndrome, inflammatory conditions, and chronic pain syndromes.

NutrEval kit requisitions will now include the option for ordering one or more of the following SNPs:

  • MTHFR
  • COMT
  • TNF-α
  • APOE

When should testing for NutrEval FMV be considered?

According to the World Health Organization, every country in the world is affected by one or more forms of malnutrition. The term malnutrition addresses 3 broad groups of conditions:1

  • Undernutrition (wasting, stunting, underweight)
  • Micronutrient-related malnutrition from inadequate or excess vitamins or minerals
  • Overweight, obesity, and diet-related noncommunicable diseases (such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes and some cancers)

Proper nutrition is key to preventing a number of diseases. Nutrients are necessary to feed every cell and ensure all body systems are functioning properly. Testing can help clinicians and patients gain an understanding of how nutritional imbalances may be impacting their health. Certain conditions or dietary, genetic, and lifestyle factors may predispose a person to having nutrient imbalances.

Symptoms and conditions associated with nutrient imbalances

  • Mood disorders2-6
  • Cardiovascular disease7,8
  • Obesity/ Insulin resistance/ Type 2 Diabetes9-12
  • Autism13-16
  • Fatigue17-20
  • Weight Issues/ Malnutrition/ Dietary Guidance
  • Maldigestion/Malabsorption
  • Increased nutrient demand in physical trauma/healing21

The NutrEval FMV Biomarkers

The biomarkers on the NutrEval are arranged as follows (see sample report for individual analytes):

  • Metabolic Analysis Markers (urine organic acids)​
  • Malabsorption and Bacterial/ Yeast Dysbiosis Markers are metabolites produced by the gastrointestinal microbiome
  • Cellular Energy & Mitochondrial Metabolites are biomarkers of carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism, and the citric acid (Kreb’s) cycle
  • Neurotransmitter Metabolites are downstream byproducts of epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine
  • Vitamin Marker are specific analytes used to assess functional levels of vitamin cofactors
  • Toxin & Detoxification Markers relate to certain toxic metabolites and the body’s detoxification capacity
  • Amino Acids (urine)
    • Essential Amino Acids must be derived from dietary sources
    • Nonessential Amino Acids are synthesized by the body
    • Intermediary Metabolites are byproducts of amino acid metabolism
      • B Vitamin Markers are involved in biochemical reactions that specifically require B vitamins
      • Urea Cycle Markers are byproducts associated with nitrogen detoxification
      • Glycine/Serine Metabolites are involved in the choline to acetylcholine (neurotransmitter) pathway and the methylation pathways
    • Dietary Peptide Related Markers can indicate incomplete protein breakdown
  • Essential and Metabolic Fatty Acids Markers (RBCs)
    • Omega 3 Fatty Acids are essential for brain function and cardiovascular health and are anti-inflammatory
    • Omega 6 Fatty Acids are involved in the balance of inflammation
    • Omega 9 Fatty Acids are important for brain growth, nerve cell myelin, and reducing inflammation
    • Saturated Fatty Acids are involved in liproprotein metabolism and adipose tissue inflammation
    • Monounsaturated Fats include omega 7 fats and unhealthy trans fats
    • Delta-6 Desaturase Activity assesses efficiency of this enzyme to metabolize omega 6’s and omega 3’s
    • Cardiovascular Risk includes specific ratios and the Omega 3 Index
  • Oxidative Stress Markers include antioxidants glutathione (whole blood) and Coenzyme Q10 (serum), as well as the oxidative damage markers lipid peroxides and 8-OHdG (urine)
  • Vitamin D (serum) measures a total of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol)
  • Elemental Markers
    • Nutrient Elements are direct measurements of copper and zinc (plasma), magnesium and potassium (RBC), and manganese and selenium (whole blood)
    • Toxic Elements (whole blood) indicate exposure to lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium or tin within approximately a 90-120 day timeframe
  • Add-on SNPs (buccal swab) include MTHFR, COMT, TNF-a, and APOE

What is the difference between plasma and urine amino acids?

Plasma Amino Acids (Fasting)

Fasting sample represents “steady state” pool of amino acids; not affected by short-term diet fluctuations.

36 analytes.

Useful for mood disorders, or uncontrolled diets.

Amino acid levels influenced by abnormal kidney function; preferred if patient has proteinuria.

Requires a blood draw.

Urine Amino Acids (First Morning Void)

Represents recent dietary intake and metabolism – more variable compared to plasma.

40 analytes.

Useful for controlled diets, to assess protein maldigestion, oxidative stress, vitamin/mineral cofactors affecting amino acid metabolism.

Amino acid levels influenced by abnormal kidney function; urine testing dependent on healthy kidney function (biomarkers ratioed to urine creatinine).

Requires a urine sample.

What advantage does the NutrEval FMV offer compared to other diagnostics?

The NutrEval FMV is one of the most comprehensive nutritional profiles available assessing a broad array of macronutrients and micronutrients, as well as markers that give insight into digestive function, toxic exposure, mitochondrial function, and oxidative stress.

Genova provides a user-friendly report with clinically actionable results including:

  • Suggested digestive support and vitamin, mineral, and fatty acid recommendations based on an algorithmic calculation of functional need for cofactors in the body’s metabolism.
  • Suggested amino acid recommendations based on patient’s direct amino acid measurements.
  • Interpretation-At-A-Glance pages provide educational information on nutrient function, causes and complications of deficiencies, and dietary sources.

A Functional Nutritional Assessment

There are various methods of assessing nutrient status, including intracellular and extracellular direct measurement, and measuring biochemical pathway markers that require specific nutrient cofactors for proper metabolism. The NutrEval uses a combination of these methods and synthesizes the information via an algorithm that determines personalized nutrient needs. The algorithm is based on functional markers shown in the literature to be associated with a need for a particular nutrient.

Functional evaluation of nutritional status assesses metabolic intermediates produced in enzymatic pathways of cellular energy production, detoxification, neurotransmitter breakdown, and amino acid metabolism. Specific metabolites outside of reference range may signal a metabolic inhibition or block. This abnormality may be due to a nutrient deficiency, an inherited enzyme deficit, toxic build-up, or drug effect. It is possible for an individual to have normal blood levels of a vitamin in order to maintain homeostasis, while exhibiting signs of insufficiency/deficiency for that vitamin. For this reason, direct testing of individual nutrients alone does not provide a complete picture.

Other methods of assessing nutrient status, such as intracellular lymphocyte testing, has limited literature support.

Conventional nutritional panels include tests such as complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, iron, ferritin and other select nutrients. The NutrEval is not meant to be a substitute for this important testing, but rather a complement by providing additional information.

What can clinicians and patients expect from NutrEval FMV testing?

Personalized recommendations for amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, digestive support, and other nutrients are provided for each patient. Additionally, exposure to select toxic substances and oxidative stressors may need to be addressed. Comprehensive stool testing or SIBO breath testing may be appropriate to investigate the possible cause for maldigestion/malabsorption and dysbiosis.

References

  1. WHO. Malnutrition. Fact sheets 2018; Accessed April 15, 2019.
  2. Su KP, Matsuoka Y, Pae CU. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Prevention of Mood and Anxiety Disorders. Clinical psychopharmacology and neuroscience : the official scientific journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015;13(2):129-137.
  3. Grosso G, Galvano F, Marventano S, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids and depression: scientific evidence and biological mechanisms. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity. 2014;2014:313570.
  4. Smith MA, Beilin LJ, Mori TA, Oddy WH. Essential fatty acids and mood: a systematic review of observational studies. Translational psychiatry. 2018;8(1):192.
  5. Zheng P, Chen JJ, Huang T, et al. A novel urinary metabolite signature for diagnosing major depressive disorder. Journal of proteome research. 2013;12(12):5904-5911.
  6. Wijendran V, Hayes KC. Dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acid balance and cardiovascular health. Annual review of nutrition. 2004;24:597-615
  7. Shimizu M, Miyazaki T, Takagi A, et al. Low circulating coenzyme Q10 during acute phase is associated with inflammation, malnutrition, and in-hospital mortality in patients admitted to the coronary care unit. Heart and vessels. 2017;32(6):668-673.
  8. Giesbertz P, Daniel H. Branched-chain amino acids as biomarkers in diabetes. Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care. 2016;19(1):48-54.
  9. Adams SH. Emerging perspectives on essential amino acid metabolism in obesity and the insulin-resistant state. Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md). 2011;2(6):445-456.
  10. Durá-Travé T, Gallinas-Victoriano F, Cortes-Castell E, Moya-Benavent M. Amino Acid Plasma Concentrations and Urinary Excretion in Young Diabetics. In: Diabetes and Its Complications. IntechOpen; 2017.
  11. Simopoulos AP. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity. Nutrients. 2016;8(3):128.
  12. Liu A, Zhou W, Qu L, et al. Altered Urinary Amino Acids in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders. Frontiers in cellular neuroscience. 2019;13:7.
  13. Li C, Shen K, Chu L, Liu P, Song Y, Kang X. Decreased levels of urinary free amino acids in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia. 2018;54:45-49.
  14. Kaluzna-Czaplinska J, Jozwik-Pruska J, Chirumbolo S, Bjorklund G. Tryptophan status in autism spectrum disorder and the influence of supplementation on its level. Metabolic brain disease. 2017;32(5):1585-1593.
  15. Kaluzna-Czaplinska J. Noninvasive urinary organic acids test to assess biochemical and nutritional individuality in autistic children. Clinical biochemistry. 2011;44(8-9):686-691.
  16. Dunstan RH, Sparkes DL, Macdonald MM, et al. Diverse characteristics of the urinary excretion of amino acids in humans and the use of amino acid supplementation to reduce fatigue and sub-health in adults. Nutrition journal. 2017;16(1):19.
  17. Hugh Dunstan R, Sparkes DL, Macdonald MM, et al. Altered amino acid homeostasis and the development of fatigue by breast cancer radiotherapy patients: A pilot study. Clinical biochemistry. 2011;44(2-3):208-215.
  18. Niblett SH, King KE, Dunstan RH, et al. Hematologic and urinary excretion anomalies in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, NJ). 2007;232(8):1041-1049.
  19. Nozaki S, Tanaka M, Mizuno K, et al. Mental and physical fatigue-related biochemical alterations. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif). 2009;25(1):51-57.
  20. Reddell L, Cotton BA. Antioxidants and micronutrient supplementation in trauma patients. Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care. 2012;15(2):181-187.
  21. Broer S, Broer A. Amino acid homeostasis and signalling in mammalian cells and organisms. The Biochemical journal. 2017;474(12):1935-1963.
  22. Duranton F, Lundin U, Gayrard N, et al. Plasma and urinary amino acid metabolomic profiling in patients with different levels of kidney function. Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN. 2014;9(1):37-45.

Lab – Genova Diagnostics

Click – Sample Report

Click – All Genova Test Reports

 

Stress, Moods, Sleep and Focus

 

The NeuroHormone Complete Plus Profile combines the Comprehensive Plus Hormone Profile and the Neurobasic Profile. The Comprehensive Plus Profile expands on the Comprehensive Profile and includes estrone (E1), estriol (E3), and the Estrogen Quotient (EQ). 

Henry Lemon MD developed the Estrogen Quotient, a simple ratio of the cancer protective E3 relative to the proliferative estrogens E1 and E2, to assess breast cancer risk. A lower number (<1.0) indicates increased risk, and a higher number (>1.0) signifies lower risk. Dr. Lemon stated that for maximum protection, an optimal EQ is >1.5. This information may be extrapolated to provide information on other estrogen driven disorders.

Because the research on the EQ focused on women, no reference range has been established for males, however some health care providers appreciate the information the additional estrogens provide in relation to prostate health. 

Urinary neurotransmitter testing provides an overall assessment of the body’s ability to make and break down neurotransmitters and are representative of whole body levels. Neurotransmitters are secreted all through the body, in neurons of both the central and peripheral nervous systems. The enzymes, cofactors and precursors in neurotransmitter metabolism in general are the same in the periphery and in the central nervous system.

Therefore, alterations in urinary neurotransmitter levels assessed in urine provide important clinical information, and may be associated with many symptoms including cognitive and mood concerns, diminished drive, fatigue and sleep difficulties, cravings, addictions and pain. Associations between urinary neurotransmitter levels and health conditions have been documented in scientific literature and may provide valuable insights as part of a comprehensive health assessment.

Useful for:

  • Increased risk of developing breast cancer 
  • History of breast cancer or other hormonally sensitive cancers 
  • Personal or family history of autoimmune disease 
  • PCOS 
  • Mood concerns, such as depression, anxiety
  • Diminished energy/fatigue
  • Insomnia
  • Cognitive concerns such as forgetfulness, inattention, brain fog
  • Addiction, dependency
  • Obsessions and cravings
  • Chronic illness, immune deficiency
  • Pain
  • Low libido, sexual dysfunction

The Comprehensive Plus Hormone Profile reports hormone levels and also calculates two important ratios. The Estrogen Quotient is a simple ratio of the cancer protective E3 relative to the proliferative estrogens E1 and E2, to assess breast cancer risk. The Pg/E2 ratio assesses the relationship between estradiol, which can drive cellular proliferation, and progesterone, which mitigates that growth and potentiates cellular differentiation.

Hormones are powerful molecules essential for maintaining physical and mental health. We frequently think of estrogen as being a female hormone, and testosterone as being a male hormone. But men AND women make both, plus several more that need to be in balance for optimum health. An imbalance of any one hormone can throw your physical and mental health out of balance, causing aggravating and even serious health problems.

One size does not fit all when it comes to hormones. For decades western medicine has prescribed hormone replacement therapy as if everyone needed the same thing and the same amount. Nothing could be further from the truth. Your hormones are like your fingerprints and in order to achieve optimal health, you need to know what your specific imbalances are. Female and male hormone tests can help identify these imbalances.

There are several ways to test for hormones (saliva, serum and urine). Saliva is the best method to test the active/bioavailable portion of hormones, which are reflective of tissue levels. If your patient is seeking bio-identical hormone replacement (BHRT), you’ll need to know active hormone levels. In addition, if using a topical (transdermal) hormone preparation for treatment, saliva testing is the most accurate tool to measure and monitor hormone status.

Analysis of urinary neurotransmitters is non-invasive; testing may provide therapeutic opportunities that improve clinical success and patient health outcomes.

Neurotransmitters are secreted from pre-synaptic neurons into the synapse between nerve cells to stimulate receptors on post-synaptic neurons. The neurotransmitters are all produced from essential aromatic amino acids. Neurotransmitter metabolism may be mediated by a variety of enzymes expressed differently throughout the body. Circulating levels of neurotransmitters and metabolites may have distinctive sources.

A lack of nutritional cofactors (vitamins, minerals) required for normal enzyme function may decrease enzyme function and neurotransmitter levels. Neurotransmitter receptors and metabolic enzymes may be subject to mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that may affect receptor or enzyme function. Normal neurotransmitter receptor function is also necessary for normal neurotransmitter activity. Neurotransmitter levels may be influenced by many factors, such as diet, lifestyle, age, sex, body mass index, hormone imbalance, environmental exposures, infection, chronic inflammation, and nicotine use.

Neurotransmitter analysis provides an overall assessment of a patient’s ability to synthesize and metabolize neurotransmitters, which must occur in both the peripheral nervous system and behind the blood brain barrier (BBB). Alterations in urinary neurotransmitter status may result from a variety of conditions including metabolic disorders, mood/behavioral disorders, environmental exposures or (rarely) the presence of certain tumors. Evaluation of neurotransmitters may provide increased clarity about a patient’s health and functional status.

Information gained through neurotransmitter testing may provide therapeutic opportunities that improve clinical success and patient health outcomes. Associations between urinary neurotransmitter levels and health conditions have been documented in scientific literature and may provide valuable insight as part of a comprehensive health assessment.

LabDoctor’s Data

 

Urinary neurotransmitter testing provides an overall assessment of the body’s ability to make and break down neurotransmitters and are representative of whole body levels. Neurotransmitters are secreted all through the body, in neurons of both the central and peripheral nervous systems. The enzymes, cofactors and precursors in neurotransmitter metabolism in general are the same in the periphery and in the central nervous system.

Therefore, alterations in urinary neurotransmitter levels assessed in urine provide important clinical information, and may be associated with many symptoms including cognitive and mood concerns, diminished drive, fatigue and sleep difficulties, cravings, addictions and pain. Associations between urinary neurotransmitter levels and health conditions have been documented in scientific literature and may provide valuable insights as part of a comprehensive health assessment.

This profile provides a comprehensive view of HPA axis function. Included is a full diurnal cortisol pattern, DHEA, and 9 primary neurotransmitters (inhibitory and excitatory).

Useful for:

  • Feeling stressed
  • Mood concerns, such as depression, anxiety
  • Nervousness/Irritability
  • Diminished energy/fatigue
  • Insomnia
  • Cognitive concerns such as forgetfulness, inattention, brain fog
  • Addiction, dependency
  • Obsessions and cravings
  • Chronic illness, immune deficiency
  • Pain
  • Low libido, sexual dysfunction
  • Salt/Sugar cravings
  • Headaches
  • Decreased stamina, burn out

Cortisol levels should be at their highest level 30 minutes after waking up in the morning, decreasing gradually over the course of the day, reaching their lowest point at bedtime. The resulting curve or pattern allows health care providers to pinpoint issues with adrenal gland function. Alterations in this pattern can results in symptoms related to stress, fatigue and insomnia. DHEA levels naturally decline with age, although alterations can be seen as part of the stress response.

Analysis of urinary neurotransmitters is non-invasive; testing may provide therapeutic opportunities that improve clinical success and patient health outcomes.

Neurotransmitters are secreted from pre-synaptic neurons into the synapse between nerve cells to stimulate receptors on post-synaptic neurons. The neurotransmitters are all produced from essential aromatic amino acids. Neurotransmitter metabolism may be mediated by a variety of enzymes expressed differently throughout the body. Circulating levels of neurotransmitters and metabolites may have distinctive sources.

A lack of nutritional cofactors (vitamins, minerals) required for normal enzyme function may decrease enzyme function and neurotransmitter levels. Neurotransmitter receptors and metabolic enzymes may be subject to mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that may affect receptor or enzyme function. Normal neurotransmitter receptor function is also necessary for normal neurotransmitter activity. Neurotransmitter levels may be influenced by many factors, such as diet, lifestyle, age, sex, body mass index, hormone imbalance, environmental exposures, infection, chronic inflammation, and nicotine use.

Neurotransmitter analysis provides an overall assessment of a patient’s ability to synthesize and metabolize neurotransmitters, which must occur in both the peripheral nervous system and behind the blood brain barrier (BBB). Alterations in urinary neurotransmitter status may result from a variety of conditions including metabolic disorders, mood/behavioral disorders, environmental exposures or (rarely) the presence of certain tumors. Evaluation of neurotransmitters may provide increased clarity about a patient’s health and functional status.

Information gained through neurotransmitter testing may provide therapeutic opportunities that improve clinical success and patient health outcomes. Associations between urinary neurotransmitter levels and health conditions have been documented in scientific literature and may provide valuable insight as part of a comprehensive health assessment.

LabDoctor’s Data

 

This salivary hormone profile provides a comprehensive view of the stress response and HPA axis/adrenal function and includes 4 cortisol levels collected over the course of the day, as well as DHEA and a secretory IgA level. 

Useful for:

  • Feeling stressed 
  • Fatigue 
  • Insomnia 
  • Nervousness/Irritability 
  • Salt/Sugar cravings 
  • Dizzy spells 
  • Headaches 
  • Decreased stamina 
  • Burn out 
  • Chronic disease 
  • Anxiety/depression 

Cortisol levels should be at their highest level 30 minutes after waking up in the morning, decreasing gradually over the course of the day, reaching their lowest point at bedtime. The resulting curve or pattern allows health care providers to pinpoint issues with adrenal gland function. Alterations in this pattern can results in symptoms related to stress, fatigue and insomnia. DHEA levels naturally decline with age, although alterations can be seen as part of the stress response.

SIgA measured in the saliva primarily provides insight into the body’s stress response, however there is some evidence that activated B cells can migrate from GALT to salivary glands, which could potentially demonstrate systemic inflammation and possibly link GI pathology via salivary sampling.

Elevated levels of sIgA are associated with an upregulated, active immune or inflammatory response, and may be reflective of acute psychological and/or physical stressors. Chronic alcoholics, heavy smokers, and those with oropharyngeal carcinoma have also shown elevations in salivary sIgA.

Decreased levels of sIgA are commonly seen in individuals with low immune system functioning, and are a sign of chronic, ongoing psychological and/or physical stress (HPA axis dysfunction) to the body which has depleted sIgA reserves. SIgA declines with age, and can be seen with some chronic gastrointestinal disorders. Persistent low levels can help to explain why people can’t shift an immune problem like allergies, chronic skin conditions or infections. Lower levels have been associated with increased risk for periodontal disease and caries.

LabDoctor’s Data

 

 

Urinary neurotransmitter testing provides an overall assessment of the body’s ability to secrete and metabolize neurotransmitters and are representative of whole body levels.

Neurotransmitters are secreted all through the body, in neurons of both the central and peripheral nervous systems. The enzymes, cofactors and precursors in neurotransmitter metabolism in general are the same in the periphery and in the central nervous system.

Therefore, alterations in urinary neurotransmitter levels assessed in urine provide important clinical information, and may be associated with many symptoms including cognitive and mood concerns, diminished drive, fatigue and sleep difficulties, cravings, addictions and pain.

Associations between urinary neurotransmitter levels and health conditions have been documented in scientific literature and may provide valuable insights as part of a comprehensive health assessment.

Useful for:

  • Mood concerns, such as depression, anxiety
  • Diminished energy/fatigue
  • Insomnia
  • Cognitive concerns such as forgetfulness, inattention, brain fog
  • Addiction, dependency
  • Obsessions and cravings
  • Chronic illness, immune deficiency
  • Pain
  • Low libido, sexual dysfunction

Analysis of urinary neurotransmitters and their metabolites is non-invasive; testing may provide therapeutic opportunities that improve clinical success and patient health outcomes.

Neurotransmitters are secreted from pre-synaptic neurons into the synapse between nerve cells to stimulate receptors on post-synaptic neurons. The neurotransmitters are all produced from essential aromatic amino acids. Neurotransmitter metabolism may be mediated by a variety of enzymes expressed differently throughout the body. Circulating levels of neurotransmitters and metabolites may have distinctive sources.

A lack of nutritional cofactors (vitamins, minerals) required for normal enzyme function may decrease enzyme function and neurotransmitter levels. Neurotransmitter receptors and metabolic enzymes may be subject to mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that may affect receptor or enzyme function. Normal neurotransmitter receptor function is also necessary for normal neurotransmitter activity. Neurotransmitter levels may be influenced by many factors, such as diet, lifestyle, age, sex, body mass index, hormone imbalance, environmental exposures, infection, chronic inflammation, and nicotine use.

Neurotransmitter analysis provides an overall assessment of a patient’s ability to synthesize and metabolize neurotransmitters, which must occur in both the peripheral nervous system and behind the blood brain barrier (BBB). Alterations in urinary neurotransmitter status may result from a variety of conditions including metabolic disorders, mood/behavioral disorders, environmental exposures or (rarely) the presence of certain tumors. Evaluation of neurotransmitters may provide increased clarity about a patient’s health and functional status.

Information gained through neurotransmitter testing may provide therapeutic opportunities that improve clinical success and patient health outcomes. Associations between urinary neurotransmitter levels and health conditions have been documented in scientific literature and may provide valuable insight as part of a comprehensive health assessment.

LabDoctor’s Data

Neurodevelopmental Panels: Brain and Learning

 

Included in the autism panel are the following tests:

  • Cholesterol
  • Comprehensive Stool Analysis
  • Glyphosphate
  • GPL-Tox: Toxic Non-Metal Chemical Profile
  • IGG Food Map with Candida – Yeast
  • Metals – Hair
  • Omega-3 Index Complete Test
  • Organic Acid test

LabGreat Plains Laboratory

ClickArticles

ClickWebinars

Click – References

ClickAutism Condition Page

Click –  Understanding Autism Brochure

 

 

Included in the ADHD panel are the following tests:

  • Glyphosphate
  • GPL-Tox: Toxic Non-Metal Chemical Profile
  • IGG Food Map with Candida – Yeast
  • Metals – Hair
  • Omega-3 Index Complete Test
  • Organic Acid test

Lab – Great Plains Laboratory

Click – Articles

Click – Webinars

Click – References

Click – ADD and ADHD Condition Page

 

Male, Female, Thyroid, Weight DNA Hormones

 

The Comprehensive Hormone Profile is the best option for baseline testing of male or female hormonal status. This non-invasive test requires only 2cc per vial of saliva in 4 separate collections. Sex hormones are tested, as well as 4 cortisol levels to evaluate the diurnal cortisol pattern. This test is a consideration in men and women concerned with changing hormone levels as a result of age, cycling women experiencing PMS, peri- and post-menopausal women concerned with their estradiol and progesterone levels for replacement considerations, and anyone with symptoms involving fatigue, insomnia, stress, immunity problems, blood sugar problems, and obesity. [ LEARN MORE]

Useful for:

Women Experiencing:

  • Hot flashes
  • Night sweats
  • Breast tenderness
  • Irritability
  • Forgetfulness
  • Irregular menstrual cycles
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Uterine fibroids
  • Increased facial / body hair
  • Acne

Men Experiencing:

  • Decreased libido
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Loss of stamina
  • Decrease in mental sharpness
  • Reduced muscle size
  • Increased moodiness
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Prostate enlargement or cancer
  • Hot flashes
  • Irritability

Men or Women Experiencing:

  • Weight gain
  • High blood sugar
  • Elevated lipids (cholesterol and/or triglycerides)
  • Insomnia
  • Fatigue
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Decreased stamina
  • Anxiety/Depression
  • Chronic disease

The Comprehensive Plus Hormone Profile reports hormone levels and also calculates two important ratios. The Estrogen Quotient is a simple ratio of the cancer protective E3 relative to the proliferative estrogens E1 and E2, to assess breast cancer risk. The Pg/E2 ratio assesses the relationship between estradiol, which can drive cellular proliferation, and progesterone, which mitigates that growth and potentiates cellular differentiation.

Hormones are powerful molecules essential for maintaining physical and mental health. We frequently think of estrogen as being a female hormone, and testosterone as being a male hormone. But men AND women make both, plus several more that need to be in balance for optimum health. An imbalance of any one hormone can throw your physical and mental health out of balance, causing aggravating and even serious health problems.

One size does not fit all when it comes to hormones. For decades western medicine has prescribed hormone replacement therapy as if everyone needed the same thing and the same amount. Nothing could be further from the truth. Your hormones are like your fingerprints and in order to achieve optimal health, you need to know what your specific imbalances are. Female and male hormone tests can help identify these imbalances.

There are several ways to test for hormones (saliva, serum and urine). Saliva is the best method to test the active/bioavailable portion of hormones, which are reflective of tissue levels. If your patient is seeking bio-identical hormone replacement (BHRT), you’ll need to know active hormone levels. In addition, if using a topical (transdermal) hormone preparation for treatment, saliva testing is the most accurate tool to measure and monitor hormone status.

LabDoctor’s Data

 

 

The analysis of thyroid hormones and antibodies together may improve the accuracy diagnosis and clinical success.  The American Thyroid Association estimates that approximately 20 million Americans have thyroid disease, and approximately 60% of those with thyroid disease are unaware of their condition. Many patients with thyroid disorders may remain undiagnosed in many patients with asymptomatic or non-specific clinical presentations. The recognition of auto-immunity as a leading cause of thyroid dysfunction has led to the evaluation of auto-antibodies in thyroid testing.

Measuring only thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) may be misleading in a variety of circumstances, including the recent treatment of thyrotoxicosis, pituitary disease, non-thyroid illness, thyroid hormone resistance or rare, TSH-secreting tumors.  Under these circumstances, and in many other cases, the evaluation of thyroid hormones and thyroid antibodies may clarify the diagnosis of thyroid conditions and improve clinical success.

Useful for:

  • Hypothyroid conditions
  • Hyperthyroid conditions
  • Autoimmune conditions
  • Arrhythmia
  • Infertility
  • Cholesterol disorders
  • Fatigue
  • Pituitary disorders

The analysis of thyroid hormones and antibodies together may improve the accuracy of diagnosis and clinical success. The American Thyroid Association estimates that approximately 20 million Americans have thyroid disease, and approximately 60% of those with thyroid disease are unaware of their condition. Many patients with thyroid disorders may remain undiagnosed in many patients with asymptomatic or non-specific clinical presentations.

Patients with conditions such as osteoporosis, dyslipidemia, atrial fibrillation, or infertility may be evaluated for thyroid disorders.  Current recommendations for diabetic women planning pregnancies include a full thyroid panel with antibodies preconception, with monitoring during pregnancy and three months post-partum. 

Measuring only thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) may be misleading in a variety of circumstances, including the recent treatment of thyrotoxicosis, pituitary disease, non-thyroid illness, thyroid hormone resistance and rare TSH-secreting tumors.  Joshi (2011) recommends monitoring free T3 and T4 in patients with low serum TSH levels, to establish patterns of increasing or decreasing values over time.  The main purpose of free-T4 and free-T3 assays is to discern thyrotoxicosis from hypothyroidism and the euthyroid state. Less than one percent of thyroid hormone is free unbound hormone; this one percent is the biologically active fraction.  Total T4 and T3 values cannot reliably distinguish between these conditions due to hereditary and acquired variations in the concentrations of thyroid hormone binding proteins.  Measuring T3 levels during treatment with antithyroid medication may have predictive value in the management of autoimmune thyroiditis, such as Grave’s disease.

The recognition of auto-immunity as a leading cause of thyroid dysfunction has led to the evaluation of auto-antibodies in thyroid testing.  Thyroid antibody tests are used to distinguish autoimmune thyroid disorders from other thyroid dysfunction.  Thyroid antibody tests, such as thyroid peroxidise antibodies (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb), are most important in patients with other, pre-existing autoimmune conditions, for example, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and Celiac disease. 

Elevations of thyroid antibodies or low levels of thyroid hormones may prompt the evaluation of iodine and selenium status, as iodine deficiency may be exacerbated by deficiencies of selenium, iron or Vitamin A.  Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormones, and iodine deficiency is a world-wide health problem.  Declining levels of urinary iodine in the US population has been documented by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2002).  The enzymes that convert T3 to T4 are selenium dependent.  Low selenium levels have been associated with goiter and thyroid nodules in European women.

The evaluation of thyroid hormones and thyroid antibodies is an opportunity to discover and treat the functional cause of vague symptoms and chronic complaints.  The analysis of thyroid hormones and antibodies together may improve the accuracy of diagnosis and clinical success.

LabDoctor’s Data

 

Genetic DNA Weight Testing

FindWhy™ Genetic Testing for Weight Control looks at five genes that are known to have a significant impact on the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates and responsiveness to exercise. The genes in the Weight Control panel were selected following a very thorough and current review of research literature related to genes, exercise, obesity and nutrition. The genes (SNPs) tested are:

  • FTO Regulation of metabolism and satiety
  • MC4R Regulation of satiety and meal frequency
  • ADRB2-E27Q Sensitivity to carbohydrates and stress impact
  • FABP2-T55A Fat absorption and insulin regulation of sugar
  • SH2B1 Regulation of insulin and leptin systems

Testing is performed on the DNA collected from on cheek cells which are obtained by brushing the three swabs on the inside of the mouth.

Science has made great advances in understanding causes of obesity including identifying environmental causes as well as genes that might be implicated. Major scientific effort is now directed toward assessing the interactions of genes and environment in the current obesity epidemic. Obesity results when body fat accumulates over time as a result of a chronic energy imbalance (calories consumed exceed calories expended). Obesity is a major health hazard worldwide and is associated with several relatively common diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and some cancers.

In recent decades, obesity has reached epidemic proportions in populations whose environments offer an abundance of calorie-rich foods and fewer opportunities for physical activity. Although changes in the genetic makeup of populations occur too slowly to be responsible for this rapid rise in obesity, genes do play a role in the development of obesity. It is thought that genes regulate how our bodies capture, store, and release energy from food including the drive to overeat (poor regulation of appetite and satiety); the tendency to be sedentary (physically inactive); a diminished ability to use dietary fats as fuel; and an enlarged, easily stimulated capacity to store body fat.

Not all people living in industrialized countries with an abundance of food and reduced physical activity are or will become obese; nor will all obese people have the same body fat distribution or suffer the same health issues. This diversity occurs among groups of the same racial or ethnic background and even within families living in the same environment. The variation in how people respond to the same environmental conditions is an additional indication that genes play a role in the development of obesity. This is consistent with the theory that obesity results from genetic variation interacting with shifting environmental conditions.

Genetic information is stored in DNA. Segments of DNA that encode proteins or other functional products are called genes. Genes are the basic physical and functional units of heredity. Each gene is located on a particular region of a chromosome. Adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine are nucleotides and are the building blocks of DNA. Each gene has a specific ordered sequence of these nucleotides.

A gene can exist in many different forms, called alleles. For example there is a gene which determines the color of hair. That gene may have many forms, or alleles: black hair, brown hair, auburn hair, red hair, blond hair, etc. One allele for each gene comes from the mother and one from the father.

Each of the two inherited alleles for a gene each may be strong (“dominant”) or weak (“recessive”). When an allele is dominant, it means that the physical characteristic (“trait”) it is coded for is usually expressed, or shown, in the living organism. Only one dominant allele is needed to express a dominant trait. Two recessive alleles are needed to exhibit a recessive form of a trait. Researchers investigate just what each gene is responsible for in the human body, and how mutations to genes cause genetic diseases.

The FindWhy™ test identifies DNA variations called single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP’s) and is based on a detailed analysis of the scientific literature. This test is a risk assessment test and is not a diagnostic test. The test does not guarantee weight loss by following a particular dietary strategy, nor does it provide obvious benefit from choosing one diet over another based on the test results. This test is designed to shed light on an individual’s genetic background, and therefore allow patients to create a weight loss plan that will help overcome possible predispositions, and to help them achieve lasting results.

LabDoctor’s Data

 

This profile provides a comprehensive view of HPA axis/adrenal function and includes 4 cortisol levels collected over the course of the day. Samples are collected 30 minutes after waking, before lunch, before dinner, and before bed. 

Useful for:

  • Feeling stressed 
  • Fatigue 
  • Insomnia 
  • Nervousness/Irritability 
  • Salt/Sugar cravings 
  • Dizzy spells 
  • Headaches 
  • Decreased stamina 
  • Burn out 
  • Chronic disease 
  • Anxiety/depression 

Cortisol levels should be at their highest level 30 minutes after waking up in the morning, decreasing gradually over the course of the day, reaching their lowest point at bedtime. The resulting curve or pattern allows health care providers to pinpoint issues with adrenal gland function. Alterations in this pattern can results in symptoms related to stress, fatigue and insomnia.

LabDoctor’s Data

 

A comprehensive preventative breast health program extends beyond imaging and lifestyle optimization, and includes accurate assessment and comprehensive treatment of demonstrated hormone imbalances. The Women’s Health and Breast Profile is an accurate, non-invasive tool to advance risk prevention and support you in providing exceptional care to your patients. 

The Women’s Health and Breast Profile includes two risk assessment ratios, the Estrogen Quotient and the Pg/E2 ratio. Dr. Henry Lemon developed the Estrogen Quotient (EQ) which is a simple ratio of the cancer protective E3 to the proliferative estrogens E1 and E2. According to Dr. Lemon, the EQ provides an assessment of breast cancer risk, with a lower number (<1.0) indicating increased risk, and a higher number (>1.0) signifying a lower risk. Dr. Lemon’s work stated that for maximum protection, an optimal EQ is >1.5. The Pg/E2 ratio, developed by Dr. John Lee, illuminates the relationship between estradiol, which is a proliferative hormone, and progesterone, which balances estradiol and slows cellular proliferation. The information gained from this profile will help to further the conversation with your patients about targeted treatment options such as BHRT, nutraceutical and herbal supplementation, as well as potential lifestyle modifications. 

Useful for:

  • Research indicates this profile could be considered for those with increased risk of developing breast cancer or history of breast cancer or other hormonally sensitive cancers.

The Women’s Health & Breast Profile Profile reports hormone levels and also calculates two important ratios. The Estrogen Quotient is a simple ratio of the cancer protective E3 relative to the proliferative estrogens E1 and E2, to assess breast cancer risk. The Pg/E2 ratio assesses the relationship between estradiol, which can drive cellular proliferation, and progesterone, which mitigates that growth and potentiates cellular differentiation.  

Hormones are powerful molecules essential for maintaining physical and mental health. We frequently think of estrogen as being a female hormone, and testosterone as being a male hormone. But men AND women make both, plus several more that need to be in balance for optimum health. An imbalance of any one hormone can throw your physical and mental health out of balance, causing aggravating and even serious health problems. 

One size does not fit all when it comes to hormones. For decades western medicine has prescribed hormone replacement therapy as if everyone needed the same thing and the same amount. Nothing could be further from the truth. Your hormones are like your fingerprints and in order to achieve optimal health, you need to know what your specific imbalances are. Female and male hormone tests can help identify these imbalances. 

There are several ways to test for hormones (saliva, serum and urine). Saliva is the best method to test the active/bioavailable portion of hormones, which are reflective of tissue levels. If your patient is seeking bio-identical hormone replacement (BHRT), you’ll need to know active hormone levels. In addition, if using a topical (transdermal) hormone preparation for treatment, saliva testing is the most accurate tool to measure and monitor hormone status. 

 

LabDoctor’s Data

Allergies and Sensitivities

 

Wheat IgG

Wheat IgA

Wheat Germ Agglutinin IgG

Wheat Germ Agglutinin IgA

Non-Gluten Proteins – A IgG

Non-Gluten Proteins – A IgA

Non-Gluten Proteins – B IgG

Non-Gluten Proteins – B IgA

Gliadin Toxc Peptides IgG

Gliadin Toxic Peptides IgA

Native + Deamidated Alpha-Gliadin-33-mer IgG

Native + Deamidated Alpha-Gliadin-33-mer IgA

Alpha Gliadin 17-mer IgG

Alpha Gliadin 17-mer IgA

Gamma-Gliadin-15-mer IgG

Gamma-Gliadin-15-mer IgA

Omega-Gliadin-17-mer IgG                          

Omega-Gliadin-17-mer IgA                          

Glutenin 21-mer IgG                                     

Glutenin 21-mer IgA                                     

Gluteomorphin+Prodynorphin IgG               

Gluteomorphin+Prodynorphin IgA               

Gliadin-Transglutaminase Complex IgG      

Gliadin-Transglutaminase Complex IgA      

Microbial Transglutaminase IgG                  

Microbial Transglutaminase IgA                  

Transglutaminase-2 IgG                                

Transglutaminase-2 IgA                                

Transglutaminase-3 IgG                                

Transglutaminase-3 IgA                                

Transglutaminase-6 IgG                                

Transglutaminase-6 IgA

 

Lab – Cyrex

 

GLUTEN-CONTAINING / GLUTEN-CONTAMINATED

Instant Coffee IgG + IgA Combined

Rye, Barley, Spelt, Polish Wheat IgG + IgA Combined                                                                

 

GLIADIN CROSS-REACTIVE FOODS

Alpha-Casein & Beta-Casein IgG + IgA Combined

Casomorphin IgG + IgA Combined

Corn IgG + IgA Combined

Cow’s Milk IgG + IgA Combined

Milk Butyrophilin IgG + IgA Combined

Milk Chocolate IgG + IgA Combined

Millet IgG + IgA Combined

Oats IgG + IgA Combined

Rice IgG + IgA Combined

Whey Protein IgG + IgA Combined

Yeast IgG + IgA Combined

 

NEWLY-INTRODUCED AND / OR OVER-CONSUMED ON GFD

Amaranth IgG + IgA Combined

Buckwheat IgG + IgA Combined

Hemp IgG + IgA Combined

Potato IgG + IgA Combined

Sesame IgG + IgA Combined

Sorghum IgG + IgA Combined

Tapioca IgG + IgA Combined

Teff IgG + IgA Combined

Quinoa IgG + IgA Combined

Whey Protein IgG + IgA Combined

Yeast IgG + IgA Combined

 

Lab – Cyrex

 

DAIRY and EGGS Modified

Egg White cooked

Egg Yolk cooked

Goat`s Milk

Yogurt

Soft Cheese + Hard Cheese

 

GRAINS Raw and Modified

Rice white + brown cooked

Rice Cake                                                                                                                                      

Rice Protein

Rice Endochitinase

Wild Rice cooked

Wheat + Alpha-Gliadins

 

BEANS Modified

Black Bean cooked 

Bean Agglutinins   

Dark Chocolate + Cocoa

Fava Bean cooked   

Garbanzo Bean cooked 

Kidney Bean cooked   

Lentil cooked   

Lentil Lectin       

Lima Bean cooked

Pinto Beans cooked

Soy Sauce gluten-free

Soybean Agglutinin

Soybean Oleosin + Aquaporin

Tofu

 

NUTS and SEEDS Raw and Modified

Almond                                                                                                                                             

Almond roasted

Brazil Nut raw + roasted                                                                                                                       

Cashew

Cashew roasted                                                                                                                

Cashew Vicilin                                                                                                                     

Chia Seed                                                                                                                         

Flax Seed

Hazelnut raw + roasted                                                                                                        

Macadamia Nut raw + roasted                                                                                                              

Mustard Seed

Peanut roasted                                                                                                                                     

Pecan raw + roasted                                                                                                                           

Peanut Butter                                                                                                                

Peanut Agglutinin                                                                                                           

Peanut Oleosin                                                                                                                   

Pistachio raw + roasted                                                                                                             

Pumpkin Seeds roasted                                                                                                             

Sesame Oleosin                                                                                                                

Sunflower Seeds roasted                                                                                                              

Sesame Albumin                                                                                                                      

Walnut     

 

VEGETABLES Raw and Modified

FRUIT Raw and Modified

Apple

Apple Cider

Apricot                                                                                             

Avocado

Banana                                                                                                               

Banana cooked                                                                                                                  

Blueberry                                                                                                           

Cantaloupe + Honeydew Melon                                                                                                          

Cherry                                                                                                                    

Cranberry                                                                                                                  

Coconut meat + water                                                                                                          

Date                                                                                                                     

Fig

Grape red + green                                                                                                           

Grapefruit

Kiwi

Lemon + Lime                                                                                                       

Latex Hevein                                                                                                       

Mango                                                                                                                 

Orange Juice

Orange                                                                                                

Peach + Nectarine

Pear                                                                                              

Pineapple                                                                                                   

Papaya                                                                                                                   

Pineapple Bromelain

Plum

Pomegranate                                                                                                           

Red Wine                                                                                                         

Strawberry                                                                                                   

Watermelon                                                                                                                  

White Wine

 

FISH and SEAFOOD Raw and Modified

Cod cooked

Crab + Lobster cooked                                                                                                           

Clam cooked                                                                                                                         

Halibut cooked

Imitation Crab cooked

Mackerel cooked                                                                                         

Oyster cooked                                                                                                                

Parvalbumin                                                                                                                    

Red Snapper cooked                                                                                                                 

Salmon                                                                                                              

Salmon cooked

Sardine + Anchovy cooked                                                                                                           

Sea Bass cooked                                                                                                               

Shrimp cooked                                                                                                        

Shrimp Tropomyosin                                                                                                        

Scallops cooked                                                                                                               

Squid (Calamari) cooked                                                                                                       

Tuna cooked                                                                                                             

Tilapia cooked                                                                                                                  

Trout cooked                                                                                                                     

Tuna raw                                                                                                                  

Whitefish cooked

 

MEATS Modified

Beef cooked medium                                                                                                                 

Chicken cooked                                                                                                                 

Gelatin                                                                                                                         

Lamb cooked

Meat Glue                                                                                                                  

Turkey cooked                                                                                                  

Pork cooked 

 

HERBS Raw

Basil                                                                                                         

Cilantro                                                                                                                

Cumin                                                                                                          

Dill                                                                                                      

Mint

Oregano                                                                                                    

Rosemary                                                                                                       

Thyme

 

SPICES Raw

Cinnamon

Ginger                                                                                                                   

Clove                                                                                                                              

Nutmeg

Paprika                                                                                                            

Turmeric (Curcumin)                                                                                                                  

Vanilla

 

GUMS

Carrageenan                                                                                                                      

Beta-Glucan                                                                                                                          

Gum Guar                                                                                                                          

Gum Tragacanth

Mastic Gum + Gum Arabic                                                                                                                    

Locust Bean Gum                                                                                                                    

Xanthan Gum

 

BREWED BEVERAGES and ADDITIVES

Black Tea brewed                                                                                                                        

Coffee Bean Protein brewed 

Green Tea brewed

Food Coloring                                                                                                                      

Honey raw + processed

 

Lab – Cyrex

 

 

 

Gut Health

 

This test is useful for:

  • Gastrointestinal Symptoms 

  • Inflammation

  • Joint Pain 

  • Mucosal Barrier Dysfunction 

  • Autoimmune Disease 

  • Food Sensitivities 

  • Chronic or Acute Diarrhea 

  • Abdominal Pain 

  • IBD/IBS 

  • Nutritional Deficiencies 

  • Bloody Stool 

  • Fever and Vomiting

 

Detailed Information

The GI360™ Profile is an innovative, comprehensive and clinically-applicable stool profile, utilizing multiplex PCR molecular technology coupled with growth-based culture and ID by MALDI-TOF, sensitive biochemical assays and microscopy to detect and assess the status of pathogens, viruses, parasites and bacteria that may be contributing to acute or chronic gastrointestinal symptoms and disease.

Microbiome Abundance and Diversity The GI360™ Profile is a gut microbiota DNA analysis tool that identifies and characterizes the abundance and diversity of more than 45 targeted analytes that peer-reviewed research has shown to contribute to dysbiosis and other chronic disease states.

The GI360™ can identify the presence of pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and parasites using multiplexed, real-time PCR. Viruses are the primary cause of acute diarrhea, and the least commonly tested. The identification of pathogenic bacteria, viruses and parasites improves treatment strategies and patient outcomes.

The Dysbiosis Index (DI) is a calculation with scores from 1 to 5 based on the overall bacterial abundance and profile within the patient’s sample as compared to a reference population. Values above 2 indicate a microbiota profile that differs from the defined normobiotic reference population (i.e., dysbiosis). The higher the DI above 2, the more the sample is considered to deviate from normobiosis.

 

LabDoctor’s Data

Click Sample Report

 

 

 

This test measures the ability of two sugar molecules, lactulose and mannitol, to permeate the intestinal epithelial barrier. Ordinarily, mannitol is efficiently absorbed but lactulose, a larger molecule, is not. This test can help to identify malabsorption and “leaky gut” syndrome (abnormal intestinal permeability), which is often associated with inflammation specifically in the gastrointestinal tract. This test requires a six-hour timed urine collection after ingesting a lactulose and mannitol solution.

Turnaround Time – 5 to 7 days

 

LabDoctor’s Data

ClickSample Report

 

This test is useful for:

  • Gastrointestinal Symptoms
  • Autoimmune Disease
  • Fatigue
  • IBD/IBS
  • Inflammation
  • Food Sensitivities
  • Nutritional Deficiencies

Detailed Information

The Comprehensive Parasitology profile is an important tool for identifying imbalances in intestinal microflora. It includes comprehensive bacteriology and yeast cultures to identify the presence of beneficial flora, imbalanced flora including Clostridium species, and dysbiotic flora, as well as detection of infectious pathogens and evaluation for the presence of parasites. 

Bacteriology

A good balance of beneficial microflora has been known to be associated with health benefits since the turn of the century. At that time Metchnikoff drew attention to the adverse effects of dysbiotic gut microflora on the host and suggested that ingestion of fermented milks ameliorated what he called “autointoxication.” He proposed that the consumption of large quantities of Lactobacillus species would reduce the number of toxin-producing bacteria and result in better health and increased lifespan.

Over the past 90-plus years there has been extensive scientific research demonstrating that a good balance of LactobacilliBifidobacteria and beneficial E. coli bacteria are important to the functional health of the gut, and as a consequence, to the whole organism. The benefits identified include inhibition of microbial pathogens, prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, prevention of travelers’ diarrhea, reduction of lactose intolerance symptoms, reduction in serum cholesterol levels, enhancement of the immune system, and inhibition of the proliferation of Candida albicans. Research has shown that improved biological value of food can be achieved through the activity of Lactobacilliand Bifidobacteria which have been reported to produce folic acid, niacin, thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, biotin and vitamin K. 

The mechanisms by which these benefits are derived are not yet fully understood. However, research suggests that some of the beneficial effects may be due to the following activities of beneficial bacteria:

  • Release of substances antagonistic to enteropathogenic microorganisms such as:
    • lactocidin
    • lactobicillin and 
    • acidolin
  • Competition with pathogens for adhesion receptors
  • Production of lactase
  • Production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as butyrate, propionate and acetate 

In a healthy balanced state of intestinal flora, the beneficial bacteria make up a significant proportion of the total microflora. However, in many individuals we see an imbalance of beneficial bacteria and an overgrowth of non-beneficial or even pathogenic microorganisms—dysbiosis. This can be due to a variety of factors including:

  • Daily exposure to chemicals in our drinking water that are toxic to friendly bacteria
  • The use of antibiotics
  • Chronic consumption of highly processed foods (low in fiber, high in sugar)
  • High stress levels

Patients may present with chronic symptoms such as irritable bowel syndrome, autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, fatigue, chronic headaches and allergies to a variety of foods. 

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing to prescriptive and natural agents is also performed for appropriate bacterial species at no additional charge. This provides the clinician with important and specific clinical information to help plan an appropriate treatment protocol. 

Yeast

Infection with yeast species can cause a variety of symptoms, both intra- and extra-gastrointestinal, and in many cases, may escape suspicion as a pathogenic agent. Controversy remains as to the relationship between Candida infection and episodes of recurrent diarrhea. However, episodes of yeast infection after short-term and long-term antibiotic use have been identified in patients with both gastrointestinal and vaginal symptoms.

There is some evidence linking yeast infections with more chronic extra-gastrointestinal conditions. Studies suggest that the production of antibodies against Candida albicans may contribute to atopic dermatitis in young adults. Other studies have identified the potential role of candidiasis in chronic fatigue syndrome.

Identification of abnormal levels of specific yeast species in the stool is an important diagnostic step in therapeutic planning for the patient with chronic gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal symptoms. 

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing to prescriptive and natural agents is also performed for appropriate fungal species at no additional charge. This provides the clinician with useful clinical information to help plan an appropriate treatment protocol.

Parasitology 

According to Dr. Hermann R. Bueno of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene in London, “parasites are the missing diagnosis in the genesis of many chronic health problems, including diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and endocrine system.” 

While parasitic infection may be an underlying etiological factor in several chronic disease processes, doctors often do not consider the potential for parasitic involvement because signs and symptoms of parasitic infection often resemble those of other diseases. However, it has been shown that parasite testing is a reasonable approach to the detection of causative agents for chronic gastrointestinal disorders. 

Most Americans are inclined to believe that parasitic infection is a rare and exotic occurrence, limited to those who have traveled to distant, tropical lands. However, for a number of reasons, there has been an increase in the incidence of parasitic infection in this country. These may include:

  • Contamination of the water supply
  • Increased use of daycare centers
  • Increased travel to, and visits from, countries where parasitic infection is endemic
  • Household pets
  • Consumption of exotic and uncooked foods
  • Antibiotic use
  • Changing sexual mores

Signs and symptoms of parasitic infection vary from one individual to another. The more common are constipation, diarrhea, bloating, gas, symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, arthralgias, myalgias, anemia, increased allergic reactions, skin lesions, agitation and anxiety, difficulty with sleep, decreased energy, malnutrition and decreased immune function. Infection can occur by four different pathways. These routes include:

  • Contaminated food or water
  • Insect vectors
  • Sexual contact
  • Passage through the skin and nose

A thorough patient history will help assess the possibility of parasitic infection and the need for appropriate testing to confirm the suspicion. Parasitology testing can include one-, two- or three-day collection, based on practitioner preference.

 

LabDoctor’s Data

ClickSample Report

 

This microorganism, which can be found on the stomach mucosa of infected people, causes very frequent and mostly silent infections that can produce gastritis, gastric ulcers and other serious pathologies. This FDA-cleared, non-invasive test directly measures the antigen in stool (not antibodies) and is used for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infections. It is also used for monitoring therapeutic efficacy during and after treatment.

The awareness of Helicobacter pylori in gastrointestinal diseases has increased greatly since Marshall and Warren described the presence of Campylobacter-like organisms in the antral mucosa of patients with histological evidence of antrum gastritis and peptic ulcers, especially duodenal ulcers. The strong correlation between the presence of H. pyloriand histologically confirmed gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric carcinoma, as well as disease resolution after H. pylori eradication, indicates a causative relationship.

The ecological niche in humans appears to be restricted to the stomach and duodenum. Patients who harbor the organism are divided into two basic groups: a) colonized and b) infected. Patients who test positive for H. pylori yet have no signs or symptoms of gastrointestinal disease are considered “colonized.” Patients who test positive for H. pylori and present with signs or symptoms of gastrointestinal disease are considered “infected.” The process by which a colonized individual becomes infected remains unclear. The process by which patients become colonized is also still under investigation.

Direct detection requires that an invasive biopsy be taken from the upper gastrointestinal tract. The presence of H. pylori is then confirmed by direct microscopic examination, rapid urease testing or culturing of the organism from the biopsy material. This strategy has the advantage of being able to detect active infections while being highly specific with a very high positive predictive value. The invasive approach subjects the patient to unnecessary risk and discomfort.

In contrast, Doctor’s Data, Inc. offers the non-invasive HpSA enzyme immunoassay (EIA), an in vitro qualitative procedure for the detection of H. pylori antigens in human stool. Test results can be used to diagnose H. pylori infection, and to monitor patient response during and post therapy. Current scientific literature indicates that testing to confirm eradication should be performed at least four weeks after the completion of therapy.

LabDoctor’s Data

 

ClickSample Report

 

Uncover the Cause of Unexplained Abdominal Symptoms with Breath Testing

SIBO is a common clinical condition and can develop in a variety of patient populations.

Genova’s SIBO Profiles are non-invasive breath tests which capture exhaled hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) gases following patient ingestion of a lactulose solution to evaluate bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine. The 3-hour SIBO profile provides insight into gas levels over a longer period of time, and is recommended for patients with slower gastrointestinal transit or constipation.

When should testing for SIBO be considered?

Symptoms of SIBO are non-specific, encompassing abdominal pain/distention, diarrhea, and flatulence.

Conditions commonly associated with SIBO include:

  • IBS

  • IBD

  • Celiac Disease

  • Diabetes

  • Fibromyalgia

  • Rosacea

  • Parkinson’s Disease

  • Obesity

Risk factors for development of SIBO include structural/anatomic issues, motility disorders, organ system dysfunction, elderly age and various medications (recurrent antibiotics, PPIs) that alter the gut microflora populations.

Symptomatic patients with any underlying conditions or risk factors warrant assessment for SIBO.

What advantage does the SIBO breath test offer compared to other diagnostics?

While aspiration of small bowel fluid (followed by culture and bacterial count) is considered to be the current gold standard for diagnosis of SIBO, it is not routinely performed because it requires a complex, invasive technique, and is costly. As a result, experts suggest breath testing for the diagnosis of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

What can clinicians and patients expect from the SIBO breath testing?

In general, clinical management of the SIBO patient involves antimicrobial therapy, prokinetic agents, nutrient supplementation, dietary interventions, and treatment of comorbid conditions.

Genova’s SIBO profiles reflect the current state of scientific understanding related to SIBO breath testing and results interpretation – and are designed to optimize management of the symptomatic patient.

Test Type: Breathing Test

LabGenova

ClickSample Report

ClickAll Genova Test Reports

 

Gastrointestinal complaints are among the most common in medical care. This comprehensive profile helps pinpoint the causes of gastrointestinal symptoms and chronic systemic conditions, and measures key markers of digestion, absorption and inflammation.

Using growth-based culture, the standard of practice in clinical microbiology, as well as sensitive biochemical assays and microscopy, this thorough stool test evaluates the status of beneficial and pathogenic microorganisms including aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, yeast and parasites. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing to prescriptive and natural agents is also performed for appropriate bacterial and fungal species at no additional charge. Parasitology stool testing can include one-, two- or three-day collection, based on practitioner preference.

This test is useful for:

  • Gastrointestinal Symptoms 

  • Autoimmune Disease 

  • IBD/IBS 

  • Inflammation 

  • Food Sensitivities 

  • Nutritional Deficiencies 

  • Joint Pain

Detailed Information:

The Comprehensive Stool Analysis with Parasitology x1, 2, or 3 is an invaluable non-invasive diagnostic assessment that permits practitioners to objectively evaluate the status of beneficial and imbalanced commensal bacteria, pathogenic bacteria, yeast/fungus and parasites. Precise identification of pathogenic species and susceptibility testing greatly facilitates selection of the most appropriate pharmaceutical or natural treatment agents. 

Important information regarding the efficiency of digestion and absorption can be gleaned from the measurement of the fecal levels of pancreatic elastase (pancreatic exocrine sufficiency), fat, muscle and vegetable fibers, and carbohydrates. Inflammation can significantly increase intestinal permeability and compromise assimilation of nutrients. The extent of inflammation, whether caused by pathogens or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), can be assessed and monitored by examination of the levels of biomarkers such as lysozyme, lactoferrin, white blood cells and mucus.

These markers can be used to differentiate between inflammation associated with potentially life-threatening inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which requires lifelong treatment, and less severe inflammation that can be associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) which is frequently due to the presence of enteroinvasive pathogens. Lactoferrin is only markedly elevated prior to and during the active phases of IBD, but not with IBS.

Monitoring fecal lactoferrin levels in patients with IBD can therefore facilitate timely treatment of IBD, and the test can be ordered separately. Since the vast majority of secretory IgA (sIgA) is normally present in the GI tract, where it prevents binding of pathogens and antigens to the mucosal membrane, it is essential to know the status of sIgA in the gut through stool testing. sIgA is the only bona fide marker of humoral immune status in the GI tract. 

Cornerstones of good health include proper digestion of food, assimilation of nutrients, exclusion of pathogens and timely elimination of waste. To obtain benefits from food that is consumed, nutrients must be appropriately digested and then efficiently absorbed into portal circulation. Microbes, larger-sized particles of fiber, and undigested foodstuffs should remain within the intestinal lumen.

Poor digestion and malabsorption of vital nutrients can contribute to degenerative diseases, compromised immune status and nutritional deficiencies. Impairment of the highly specific nutrient uptake processes, or compromised GI barrier function, as in “leaky gut syndrome,” can result from a number of causes including:

  • Low gastric acid production

  • Chronic Maldigestion

  • Food allergen impact on bowel absorptive surfaces

  • Bacterial overgrowth or imbalances (dysbiosis)

  • Pathogenic bacteria, yeast or parasites and related toxic irritants

  • The use of NSAIDs and antibiotics

Impairment of intestinal functions can contribute to the development of food allergies, systemic illnesses, autoimmune disease, and toxic overload from substances that are usually kept in the confines of the bowel for elimination. After performing a stool test, efficient remediation of GI dysfunctions incorporates a comprehensive guided approach that should include consideration of elimination of pathogens and exposure to irritants, supplementation of hydrochloric acid, pancreatic enzymes and pre- and probiotics, and repair of the mucosal barrier.

 

LabDoctor’s Data

ClickSample Report

 

The body continually attempts to eliminate chemical toxins through enzymatic processes in the liver. Urinary D-glucaric acid, a byproduct of Phase I detoxification, is an indicator of chemical exposure to over 200 chemicals. Urinary mercapturic acids are excreted end products of Phase II detoxification. Together, assessment of these two analytes provides valuable information about exposure to xenobiotics, liver disease and the ability of the liver to eliminate toxins. This non-invasive test requires a single, first morning void (FMV) urine collection.

This test is useful for:

  • Chemical Exposure

  • Detoxification Therapy

  • Liver Detoxification Function

Detailed Information:

The production, use and disposal of toxic chemicals and synthetic materials have increased the risk of exposure to health-threatening toxins. Causal relationships between toxic chemicals and diseases have been well established. However many patients endure chronic symptoms that are associated with exposure to toxins before advanced stages of specific diseases are realized. Thus, there is a great demand for noninvasive laboratory tests that can provide timely assessment of chemical exposure and the capability of hepatic detoxification.

One process by which the body eliminates toxins is enzymatic detoxification in the liver. A reliable biomarker for exposure to toxic chemicals is urinary D-glucaric acid. Elevated levels of D-glucaric acid indicate induction of cytochrome P-450 enzymes (phase I) as a result of exposure to many xenobiotics, including pesticides, fungicides, petrochemicals, drugs, toluene, formaldehyde, styrenes and more. Such exposures induce the glucuronic acid enzymatic pathway and production of D-glucaric acid, thus urinary D-glucaric acid is an indirect byproduct of chemical exposure and phase I detoxification reactions.

The urinary level of mercapturic acids indicates quantitatively the degree of activity or capability of phase II detoxification. Mercapturic acids are the final excretory products of detoxification and include a variety of functionalized xenobiotics that have been conjugated with glutathione or L-cysteine prior to excretion. Low levels of mercapturic acids are consistent with insufficient levels of glutathione and/or cysteine. When the rate of formation of functionalized xenobiotics (phase I) exceeds the capacity of phase II detoxification, more potent toxins accumulate.

Especially important for symptomatic patients or those who have a history of chemical sensitivity, this test does not require the use of hepatotoxic compounds. This non-invasive test requires only a single, first morning void (FMV) urine collection. Results are expressed per unit creatinine to normalize for dilution effects, and reference ranges are age and gender specific. The test does not replace comprehensive liver tests for cases of advanced liver disease.

 

LabDoctor’s Data

Toxicity and Molds

 

INCLUDED IN THE PANEL ARE:

MycoTox Mold Profile (see below)

Toxic Non-Metal Chemical Test (see below)

Organic Acids Test (see below)

Glyphosphate Test (see below)

 

Lab – Great Plains Laboratory

ClickSample Report

 

Glyphosphate

Glyphosate is the world’s most widely produced herbicide and is the primary toxic chemical in Roundup™, as well as in many other herbicides. In addition, it is a broad-spectrum herbicide that is used in more than 700 different products from agriculture and forestry to home use. Glyphosate was introduced in the 1970s to kill weeds by targeting the enzymes that produce the amino acids tyrosine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine. The enzymes of many bacteria are also susceptible to inhibition by this chemical, thus altering the flora of many animals.

Usage of glyphosate has since amplified, after the introduction of genetically modified (GMO) glyphosate-resistant crops that can grow well in the presence of this chemical in soil. In addition, toxicity of the surfactant commonly mixed with glyphosate, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone (1). In addition, in 2014 Enlist Duo™, a herbicide product which contains a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) salt and glyphosate, was approved for use in Canada and the U.S. for use on genetically modified soybeans and genetically modified maize, both of which were modified to be resistant to both 2,4-D and glyphosate. 2,4-D has many toxic effects of its own and can be measured in the GPL-TOX test.

The Great Plains Laboratory, Inc. offers a urine test for glyphosate and we are also now testing water samples.

Recent studies have discovered glyphosate exposure to be a cause of many chronic health problems. It can enter the body by direct absorption through the skin, by eating foods treated with glyphosate, or by drinking water contaminated with glyphosate. A recent study (2) stated that a coherent body of evidence indicates that glyphosate could be toxic below the regulatory lowest observed adverse effect level for chronic toxic effects, and that it has teratogenic, tumorigenic and hepatorenal effects that can be explained by endocrine disruption and oxidative stress, causing metabolic alterations, depending on dose and exposure time. The World Health Organization International Agency for Research on Cancer published a summary in March 2015 that classified glyphosate as a probable carcinogen in humans (3).

Possible cancers linked to glyphosate exposure include non-Hodgkin lymphoma, renal tubule carcinoma, pancreatic islet-cell adenoma, and skin tumors. Studies have also indicated that glyphosate disrupts the microbiome in the intestine, causing a decrease in the ratio of beneficial to harmful bacteria (4). Thus, highly pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella entritidis, Salmonellagallinarum, Salmonella typhimurium, Clostridium perfringens, and Clostridium botulinum are highly resistant to glyphosate but most beneficial bacteria such as Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus badius, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, and Lactobacillus spp. were found to be moderately to highly susceptible. The relationship between the microbiome of the intestine and overall human health is still unclear, but current research indicates that disruption of the microbiome could cause diseases such as metabolic disorder, diabetes, depression, autism, cardiovascular disease, and autoimmune disease.

Treatment of glyphosate toxicity should be centered on determining the route of introduction and avoiding future exposure. Eating non-GMO (genetically modified organism) foods and drinking reverse osmosis water are two of the best ways to avoid glyphosate. A recent study showed that people eating organic food had considerably lower concentrations of glyphosate in the urine (2). Drinking extra water may also be beneficial since glyphosate is water soluble. More than 90% of corn and soy used are now of the GMO type. In addition, non-GMO wheat is commonly treated with glyphosate as a drying procedure. Glyphosate is somewhat volatile and a high percentage of rain samples contained glyphosate (2).

Another study found that glyphosate accumulated in bones. Considering the strong chelating ability of glyphosate for calcium, accumulation in bones is not surprising. Other results showed that glyphosate is detectable in intestine, liver, muscle, spleen and kidney tissue (5). A 54-year-old man who accidentally sprayed himself with glyphosate developed disseminated skin lesions six hours after the accident (6). One month later, he developed a symmetrical Parkinson Syndrome.

The chelating ability of glyphosate also extends to toxic metals (7). The high incidence of kidney disease of unknown etiology (renal tubular nephropathy) has reached epidemic proportions among young male farm workers in sub-regions of the Pacific coasts of the Central American countries of El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, India, and Sri Lanka (8). The researchers propose that glyphosate forms stable chelates with a variety of toxic metals that are then ingested in the food and water or in the case of rice paddy workers, may be absorbed through the skin.

These glyphosate-heavy metal chelates reach the kidney where the toxic metals damage the kidney. These authors propose that these chelates accumulate in hard water and clay soils and persist for years, compared to much shorter periods of persistence for non-chelated glyphosate. Furthermore, these chelates may not be detected by common analytical chemistry methods which can only detect free glyphosate, thus dramatically reducing estimates of glyphosate persistence in the environment when metals are high (for example, in clay soil or hard water).

High correlations exist between glyphosate usage and numerous chronic illnesses, including autism, which is shown in the figure on the first page (9). Other disease incidences with high correlations include hypertension, stroke, diabetes , obesity, lipoprotein metabolism disorder , Alzheimer’s, senile dementia, Parkinson’s, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal infections, end stage renal disease, acute kidney failure, cancers of the thyroid, liver, bladder, pancreas, kidney, and myeloid leukemia (9). Correlations are not causations, yet they raise concern over the use of a chemical to which all life on earth appears to be exposed.

Specimen Requirements:

Urine: 10 mL of first morning urine before food and drink is preferred.

Water: Fill water container supplied in Glyphosate in Water test kit 1/2 to 3/4 full.

 

Lab – Great Plains Laboratory

ClickSample Report

 

GPL-TOX Profile (Toxic Non-Metal Chemicals)

Every day, we are exposed to hundreds of toxic chemicals through products like pharmaceuticals, pesticides, packaged foods, household products, and environmental pollution.  As we have become more exposed to chemical-laden products and to toxic chemicals in food, air, and water, we have been confronted with an accelerating rate of chronic illnesses like cancer, heart disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, chemical sensitivity, autism spectrum disorders, ADD/AD(H)D, autoimmune disorders, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. 

Because exposure to environmental pollutants has been linked to many chronic diseases, The Great Plains Laboratory has created GPL-TOX, a toxic non-metal chemical profile that screens for the presence of 173 different toxic chemicals including organophosphate pesticides, phthalates, benzene, xylene, vinyl chloride, pyrethroid insecticides, acrylamide, perchlorate, diphenyl phosphate, ethylene oxide, acrylonitrile, and more.  This profile also includes Tiglylglycine (TG), a marker for mitochondrial disorders resulting from mutations of mitochondrial DNA.  These mutations can be caused by exposure to toxic chemicals, infections, inflammation, and nutritional deficiencies.

Advantages of the GPL-TOX Profile:

  • GPL-TOX screens for 173 different environmental pollutants using 18 different metabolites, all from a single urine sample.

  • GPL-TOX uses the power of advanced mass spectrometry (MS/MS), which is necessary to detect lower levels of certain genetic, mitochondrial, and toxic chemical markers that conventional mass spectrometry often misses.

  • GPL-TOX also includes Tiglylglycine, a marker for mitochondrial damage, which is often seen in chronic toxic chemical exposure.

  • GPL-TOX pairs perfectly with our Organic Acids Test (OAT) and our Glyphosate Test in the Enviro-TOX Panel. This panel offers you comprehensive testing to assess exposure to common environmental toxins and the damage that can be caused by this exposure, all at a great value, and all from one urine sample.

  • William Shaw, Ph.D., Director of The Great Plains Laboratory is board-certified in both clinical chemistry and toxicology by the American Board of Clinical Chemistry.

Environmental Pollutants Tested in the GPL-TOX Profile:

Phthalates

Perhaps the most widespread group of toxic chemicals found in our environment. Phthalates are commonly found in after shave lotions, aspirin, cosmetics, detergents, foods microwaved with plastic covers, oral pharmaceutical drugs, intravenous products prepared in plastic bags, hair sprays, insecticides, insect repellents, nail polish, nail polish remover, skin care products, adhesives, explosives, lacquer, janitorial products, perfumes, paper coatings, printing inks, safety glass, and varnishes. Phthalates have been implicated in reproductive damage, depressed leukocyte function, and cancer. Phthalates have also been found to impede blood coagulation, lower testosterone, and alter sexual development in children. Low levels of phthalates can feminize the male brain of the fetus, while high levels can hyper-masculinize the developing male brain.

 

Vinyl Chloride

Vinyl chloride is an intermediate in the synthesis of several commercial chemicals, including polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Exposure to vinyl chloride may cause central nervous system depression, nausea, headache, dizziness, liver damage, degenerative bone changes, thrombocytopenia, enlargement of the spleen, and death.

 

Benzene

Benzene is an organic solvent that is widespread in the environment. Benzene is a by-product of all sources of combustion, including cigarette smoke, and is released by outgassing from synthetic materials, and is a pollutant released by numerous industrial processes. Benzene is an extremely toxic chemical that is mutagenic and carcinogenic. High exposures to benzene cause symptoms of nausea, vomiting, dizziness, lack of coordination, central nervous system depression, and death. It can also cause hematological abnormalities.

 

Pyrethrins

Pyrethrins are widely used as insecticides. Exposure during pregnancy doubles the likelihood of autism. Pyrethrins may affect neurological development, disrupt hormones, induce cancer, and suppress the immune system.

 

Xylenes

Xylenes (dimethylbenzenes) are solvents found not only in common products such as paints, lacquers, pesticides, cleaning fluids, fuel and exhaust fumes, but also in perfumes and insect repellents. Xylenes are oxidized in the liver and bound to glycine before eliminated in urine. High xylene levels may be due to the use of certain perfumes and insect repellents. High exposures to xylene create an increase in oxidative stress, causing symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, central nervous system depression, and death. Occupational exposure is often found in pathology laboratories where xylene is used for tissue processing.

 

Styrene

Styrene is used in the manufacturing of plastics, in building materials, and is found in car exhaust fumes. Polystyrene and its copolymers are widely used as food-packaging materials. The ability of styrene monomer to leach from polystyrene packaging to food has been reported. Occupational exposure due to inhalation of large amounts of styrene adversely impacts the central nervous system, causes concentration problems, muscle weakness, tiredness and nausea, and irritates the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, and throat.

 

Organophosphates

Organophosphates are one of the most toxic groups of substances used throughout the world. They are often used as biochemical weapons and terrorist agents, but are most commonly used in pesticide formulations. Organophospates are inhibitors of cholinesterase enzymes, leading to overstimulation of nerve cells, causing sweating, salivation, diarrhea, abnormal behavior, including aggression and depression. Children exposed to organophosphates have more than twice the risk of developing pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), an autism spectrum disorder. A study done in the San Francisco Bay area found that in California agricultural areas, children born to mothers living within 500 meters of fields where organochlorine pesticides were used were more than 6 times more likely to develop autism than children whose mothers did not live near such fields. ASD risk increased with the poundage of organochlorines applied and decreased with distance from field sites. Maternal organophosphate exposure has been associated with various adverse outcomes including having shorter pregnancies and children with impaired reflexes.

 

MTBE and ETBE

MTBE and ETBE are gasoline additives used to improve octane ratings. Exposure to these compounds is most likely due to groundwater contamination, and inhalation or skin exposure to gasoline or its vapors and exhaust fumes. MTBE has been demonstrated to cause hepatic, kidney, and central nervous system toxicity, peripheral neurotoxicity, and cancer in animals. Since the metabolites of these compounds are the same, ETBE may be similarly toxic.

 

2, 4-Dicholorophenoxyacetic (2,4-D)

A very common herbicide that was a part of Agent Orange, used by the United States during the Vietnam War to increase visibility for war planes, by destroying plant undergrowth and crops. It is most commonly used in agriculture on genetically modified foods, and as a weed killer for lawns. Exposure to 2, 4-D via skin or oral ingestion is associated with neuritis, weakness, nausea, abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, stupor, seizures, brain damage, and impaired reflexes. 2, 4-D is a known endocrine disruptor, and can block hormone distribution and cause glandular breakdown.

 

Diphenyl Phosphate

This is a metabolite of the organophosphate flame retardant triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), which is used in plastics, electronic equipment, nail polish, and resins.  TPHP can cause endocrine disruption. Studies have also linked TPHP to reproductive and developmental problems. 

 

Acrylamide

Acrylamide can polymerize to form polyacrylamide.  Polyacrylamide is used in many industrial processes such as plastics, food packaging, cosmetics, nail polish, dyes, and treatment of drinking water.  Food and cigarette smoke are also two major sources of exposure. Acrylamide has been found in foods like potato chips, French fries, and many others such as asparagus, potatoes, legumes, nuts, seeds, beef, eggs, and fish. Asparagine, which is found in these foods can produce acrylamide when cooked at high temperature in the presence of sugars. High levels of acrylamide can elevate a patient’s risk of cancer.  In addition, acrylamide is known to cause neurological damage.

 

Perchlorate

This chemical is used in the production of rocket fuel, missiles, fireworks, flares, explosives, fertilizers, and bleach. Studies show that perchlorate is often found in water supplies. Many food sources are also contaminated with perchlorate. Perchlorate can disrupt the thyroid’s ability to produce hormones. The EPA has also labeled perchlorate a likely human carcinogen. Patients that are high in perchlorate can use a reverse osmosis water treatment system to remove the chemical from their water supply.

 

1,3 Butadiene 

This is a chemical made from the processing of petroleum. It is often a colorless gas with a mild gasoline-like odor. Most of this chemical is used in the production of synthetic rubber. 1,3 Butadiene is a known carcinogen and has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Individuals that come into contact with rubber, such as car tires, could absorb 1,3 Butadiene through the skin. The increased use of old tires in the production of crumb rubber playgrounds and athletic fields is quite troubling because children and athletes may be exposed to toxic chemicals this way.

 

Propylene Oxide

This chemical is used in the production of plastics and is used as a fumigant. Propylene oxide is used to make polyester resins for textile and construction industries.  It is also used in the preparation of lubricants, surfactants, and oil demulsifiers. It has also been used as a food additive, an herbicide, a microbicide, an insecticide, a fungicide, and a miticide. Propylene oxide is a probable human carcinogen. 

 

1-Bromopropane (1-BP)

1-Bromopropane is an organic solvent used for metal cleaning, foam gluing, and dry cleaning. Studies have shown that 1-BP is a neurotoxin as well as a reproductive toxin. Research indicates that exposure to 1-BP can cause sensory and motor deficits. Chronic exposure can lead to decreased cognitive function and impairment of the central nervous system. Acute exposure can lead to headaches.

 

Ethylene Oxide

Ethylene oxide is used in many different industries including agrochemicals detergents, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. Ethylene oxide is also used as a sterilizing agent on rubber, plastics, and electronics. Chronic exposure to ethylene oxide has been determined to be mutagenic to humans. Multiple agencies have reported it as a carcinogen. Studies of people exposed to ethylene oxide show an increased incidence of breast cancer and leukemia. Caution is needed with ethylene oxide because it is odorless at toxic levels.

 

Acrylonitrile

Acrylonitrile is a colorless liquid with a pungent odor. It is used in the production of acrylic fibers, resins, and rubber. Use of any of these products could lead to exposure to acrylonitrile. Smoking tobacco and cigarettes is another potential exposure. Exposure to acrylonitrile can lead to headaches, nausea, dizziness, fatigue, and chest pains. The European Union has classified acrylonitrile as a carcinogen. 

 

Acrolein

Acrolein is commonly used as an herbicide to control submersed and floating weeds and algae in irrigation canals. Humans are exposed to acrolein via oral (fried foods, alcoholic beverages, and water), respiratory (cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust), and dermal routes. In addition, there is also endogenous generation (metabolism and lipid peroxidation) of acrolein. Acrolein has been suggested to play a role in several disease states including spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and neuro-, hepato-, and nephro-toxicity. On the cellular level, acrolein exposure has diverse toxic effects, including DNA and protein adduction, oxidative stress, mitochondrial disruption, membrane damage, and immune dysfunction.

 

GPL -TOX Profile is recommended for the following conditions:

  • Alzheimer’s Disease

  • Amyotrophic Lacteroclerosis (ALS)

  • Anorexia Nervosa

  • Anxiety Disorder

  • Apraxia

  • Arthritis

  • Asthma

  • Attention deficit (ADD)

  • Attention deficit with hyperactivity (ADHD)

  • Autism

  • Autoimmune disorders

  • Bipolar disorder

  • Cancer

  • Cerebral palsy

  • Chronic fatigue syndrome

  • Crohn’s disease

  • Depression

  • Developmental disorder

  • Down Syndrome

  • Epilepsy

  • Failure to thrive

  • Fibromyalgia

  • Genetic diseases

  • Irritable bowel syndrome

  • Learning disability

  • Mitochondria disorder

  • Multiple sclerosis

  • Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)

  • Occupational exposures

  • Parkinson’s disease

  • Peripheral neuropathy

  • Schizophrenia

  • Seizure disorders

  • Systemic lupus erythematosus

  • Tic disorders

  • Tourette syndrome

  • Ulcerative colitis

The GPL-TOX profile tests for Tiglylglycine (TG), one of the most specific markers for mitochondrial disorders resulting from mutations of mitochondrial DNA. These mutations can result from exposure to toxic chemicals, infections, inflammation, and nutritional deficiencies. Mitochondria are important in all cells in the body, but are especially important to organs that utilize large amounts of energy, such as the muscles, heart, and brain. The mitochondria also have several other important functions in the cell, including steroid synthesis, calcium regulation, free radical production, and the induction of apoptosis or programmed cell death, all of which are involved in the pathogenesis of numerous disorders. The marker used in the GPL-TOX profile indicates mitochondrial dysfunction by monitoring a metabolite that is elevated in mitochondrial deficiency of cofactors such as NAD+, flavin-containing coenzymes, and Coenzyme Q10. Disorders associated with mitochondrial dysfunction include autism, Parkinson’s disease, and cancer.

Metabolites of Pollutants tested in the GPL-TOX Profile:

2-Methylhippuric Acid (2MHA), 3-Methylhippuric Acid (3MHA), 4-Methylhippuric Acid (4MHA)

These are metabolites of xylenes, solvents found in paints, lacquers, cleaning agents, pesticides, and gasoline. Exposure to xylenes generates methylhippuric acid isomers. Avoid/reduce exposure to these substances.

 

N-acetyl phenyl cysteine (NAP)

NAP is a metabolite of benzene. Benzene is a solvent that is widespread in the environment. It is found in cigarette smoke and gasoline, and is a byproduct of all types of combustion, including motor vehicle exhaust. Treatment consists of removing sources of exposure.

 

Phenylglyoxylic Acid (PGO)

Exposure to environmental styrene may slightly increase phenylglyoxylic and mandelic acid. Reduce exposure by eliminating the use of plastic and styrofoam containers for cooking, reheating, eating or drinking. Elimination of styrene can be accelerated by supplementing with glutathione and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC).

 

2-Hydroxyisobutyric Acid (2HIB)

2-Hydroxyisobutyric acid is formed endogenously as a product of branched-chain amino acid degradation and ketogenesis. This compound is also the major metabolite of gasoline octane enhancers such as MTBE and ETBE. Elevated levels indicate environmental exposure and very high values have been reported in genetic disorders.

 

Monoethyl Phthalate (MEP)

MEP from diethyl phthalate is the most abundant phthalate metabolite found in urine. Diethyl phthalate is used in plastic products. Elevated values indicate exposure from various possible sources. Elimination of phthalates may be accelerated by sauna treatment.

 

Dimethylphosphate (DMP) & Diethylphosphate (DEP)

DMP and DEP are major metabolites of many organophosphate pesticides. Reduce exposure by eating organic foods and avoiding use of pesticides in your home or garden. Living near agricultural areas or golf courses and areas regularly sprayed with pesticides will increase exposure. Elimination of organophosphates can be accelerated by sauna treatment.

 

3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid (3PBA)

3-Phenoxybenzoic acid is a metabolite of pyrethroid insecticides. Elimination can be accelerated by sauna treatment.

 

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D)

2,4-D was an ingredient in Agent Orange, and is most commonly used in agriculture of genetically modified foods, and as a weed killer for lawns. Reduce exposure by eating organic foods and avoiding use of pesticides in your home or garden.

 

Tiglylglycine (TG)

TG is a marker for mitochondrial dysfunction. Mutations of mitochondria DNA may result from exposure to toxic chemicals, infections, inflammation, and nutritional deficiencies.

 

N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-cysteine

NAE is a metabolite of acrylamide, which is detoxified through a two-step process. First acrylamide is metabolized by the cytochrome P450s. Second it is conjugated to glutathione in order to make it more water soluble. Acrylamide is used in many industrial processes such as plastics, food packaging, cosmetics, nail polish, dyes, and treatment of drinking water. High levels of acrylamide can elevate a patient’s risk of cancer and cause neurological damage. Supplementation with glutathione can assist in the elimination of this compound. 

 

Diphenyl Phosphate

This is a metabolite of the organophosphate flame retardant triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), which is used in plastics, electronic equipment, nail polish, and resins.  TPHP can cause endocrine disruption. Studies have also linked TPHP to reproductive and developmental problems.

 

Perchlorate

Perchlorate is used in the production of rocket fuel, missiles, fireworks, flares, explosives, fertilizers, and bleach. Studies show that perchlorate is often found to contaminate water supplies and food sources. It can disrupt the thyroid’s ability to produce hormones.  The EPA has also labeled perchlorate a likely human carcinogen. Patients that are high in perchlorate can use a reverse osmosis water treatment system to remove perchlorate.

 

N-Acetyl (3,4-Dihydroxybutyl) Cysteine (NABD)

NADB is a metabolite of 1,3 butadiene, which is evident of exposure to synthetic rubber such as tires. 1,3 butadiene is a known carcinogen and has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Individuals that come into contact with rubber, such as car tires, could absorb 1,3 butadiene through the skin.

 

N-Acetyl (2,Hydroxypropl) Cysteine (NAHP)

NAHP is a metabolite of propylene oxide which is used in the production of plastics and as a fumigant. It is also used in the preparation of lubricants, surfactants, and oil demulsifiers and as a food additive, an herbicide, a microbicide, an insecticide, a fungicide, and a miticide. Propylene oxide is a probable human carcinogen.   

 

N-Acetyl (Propyl) Cysteine (NAPR)

NAPR is a metabolite of 1-bromopropane. Chronic exposure can lead to decreased cognitive function and impairment of the central nervous system. Acute exposure can lead to headaches.

 

2-Hydroxyethyl Mercapturic Acid (HEMA)

HEMA is a metabolite of ethylene oxide, which is used in the production of agrochemicals, detergents, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products.  Chronic exposure to ethylene oxide has been determined to be mutagenic to humans.    HEMA is also a metabolite of vinyl chloride and halopropane, which are used in many commercial chemical processes such as foam glueing, dry cleaning, and in the production of solvents.  Supplementation with glutathione should assist in the detoxification process of these chemicals.

 

N-Acetyl (2-Cyanoethyl) Cysteine (NACE)

NACE is a metabolite of acrylonitrile, which is used in the production of acrylic fibers, resins, and rubber. Acrylonitrile is metabolized by the cytochrome P450s and then conjugated to glutathione. Supplementation with glutathione should assist in the detoxification of acrylonitrile.

 

N-acetyl-S-(3-hydroxypropyl)-L-cysteine (3-HPMA)

3-HPMA is a metabolite of acrolein. Acrolein is commonly used as an herbicide to control weeds and algae in irrigation canals. Humans are exposed to acrolein via oral (fried foods, alcoholic beverages, and water), respiratory (cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust), and dermal routes. On the cellular level, acrolein exposure has diverse toxic effects, including DNA and protein adduction, oxidative stress, mitochondrial disruption, membrane damage, and immune dysfunction. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or glutathione (GSH) supplementation is recommended as treatment.

 

Recommendations for the detoxification of chemicals:

If you or a patient has had a GPL-TOX Profile and/or a Glyphosate Test run and found moderate-high levels of any compounds, there are things you can do to help your body eliminate the toxins and to prevent future exposures. The first steps to reducing the amount of toxins presently in the body are to switch to eating only organic food and drinking water that has common toxins, including pesticides filtered out. Most conventional food crops are exposed to larger and larger doses of pesticides and herbicides, and by switching to organic you will prevent exposure to hundreds of these toxicants. Many of these chemicals have also contaminated our water supplies. Installing a high-quality water filtration system in the home that eliminates them is important to do and there are several options available.  

The next step to avoiding future exposures is to change the products you use on a daily basis – from food and beverage containers to beauty and cleaning products. Instead of using plastic water bottles and food containers, switch to glass or metal. Never microwave food in plastic or styrofoam containers and do not drink hot beverages from plastic or styrofoam cups. Make sure your shampoo, soaps, lotions, and other beauty products are free of phthalates. Use cleaning products made from natural ingredients or make your own at home.  

To eliminate toxins from the body, we highly recommend exercise and the use of saunas, especially infrared sauna therapy to rid many chemicals through sweat. Infrared sauna is superior to conventional sauna because it reaches deeper into the body, increasing the circulation in the blood vessels, and causing the body to start to releasing many of the chemicals stored in body fat.  

There are two supplements that are particularly useful in helping the body detoxify. The first is glutathione, or its precursor N-acetyl cysteine. Glutathione is one of the most common molecules used by the body to eliminate toxic chemicals. If you are constantly exposed to toxicants your stores of glutathione could be depleted. The second supplement is vitamin B3 (niacin). Some may not enjoy the flushing that can happen when taking niacin, however, this flushing is from the blood vessels dilating, which is useful in the detoxification process.  If sensitive to the flushing, start with the lowest recommended dose and work up from there.

 

Lab – Great Plains Laboratory

ClickSample Report

 

MycoTOX Profile (Mold Exposure)

Mycotoxins are some of the most prevalent toxins in the environment. Mycotoxins are metabolites produced by fungi like mold, which can infest buildings, vehicles, and foodstuffs. A majority of mycotoxin exposures are through food ingestion or airborne exposure. In the European Union, 20% of all grains harvested have been found to be contaminated with mycotoxins. Unfortunately, mycotoxins are resistant to heat and many processing procedures.

Fungi are able to grow on almost any surface, especially if the environment is warm and wet. Inner wall materials of buildings, wall paper, fiber glass insulation, ceiling tiles, and gypsum support are all good surfaces for fungi to colonize. These fungi then release mycotoxins into the environment causing symptoms of many different chronic diseases. Diseases and symptoms linked to mycotoxin exposure include fever, pneumonia-like symptoms, heart disease, rheumatic disease, asthma, sinusitis, cancer, memory loss, vision loss, chronic fatigue, skin rashes, depression, ADHD, anxiety, and liver damage. 

With our new MycoTOX Profile, we can identify mycotoxin exposures and make recommendations for detoxification treatments that have been effective.

Advantages of the MycoTOX Profile:

  • MycoTOX screens for eleven different mycotoxins, from 40 species of mold, in one urine sample.

  • MycoTOX is the most comprehensive and competitively priced mycotoxin test available.

  • MycoTOX uses the power of advanced mass spectrometry (MS/MS), which is necessary to detect lower levels of these fungal toxins. This test is optimal for follow up testing to ensure that detoxification therapies have been successful.

  • MycoTOX pairs perfectly with the Organic Acids Test (OAT), GPL-TOX (Toxic Non-Metal Chemical Profile), Phospholipase A2 Activity Test, and the Glyphosate Test. This gives you comprehensive testing to assess exposure to common environmental toxins and the damage that can be caused by this exposure, all at a great value, and all from one urine sample.

MycoTox Markers:

AFLATOXIN M1 (AFM1)

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the main metabolite of aflatoxin B1, which is a mycotoxin produced by the mold species Aspergillus. Aflatoxins are some of the most carcinogenic substances in the environment. Aflatoxin susceptibility is dependent on multiple different factors such as age, sex, and diet.  Aflatoxin can be found in beans, corn, rice, tree nuts, wheat, milk, eggs, and meat. In cases of lung aspergilloma, aflatoxin has been found in human tissue specimens. Aflatoxin can cause liver damage, cancer, mental impairment, abdominal pain, hemorrhaging, coma, and death. Aflatoxin has been shown to inhibit leucocyte proliferation. Clinical signs of aflatoxicosis are non-pruritic macular rash, headache, gastrointestinal dysfunction (often extreme), lower extremity edema, anemia, and jaundice. The toxicity of Aflatoxin is increased in the presence of Ochratoxin and Zearalenone.

OCHRATOXIN A (OTA)

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, and carcinogenic mycotoxin. This chemical is produced by molds in the Aspergillus and Penicillium families. Exposure is primarily through inhalation in water-damaged buildings. Exposure to OTA can also come from contaminated foods such as cereals, grape juices, dairy, spices, wine, dried vine fruit, and coffee. OTA can lead to kidney disease and adverse neurological effects. Studies have shown that OTA can cause significant oxidative damage to multiple brain regions and the kidneys. Dopamine levels in the brain of mice have been shown to be decreased after exposure to OTA.

STERIGMATOCYSTIN (STG)

Sterigmatocystin (STG) is a mycotoxin that is closely related to aflatoxin. STG is produced from several species of mold such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Bipolaris. It is considered to be carcinogenic, particularly in the cells of the GI tract and liver. STG has been found in the dust from damp carpets. It is also a contaminant of many foods including grains, corn, bread, cheese, spices, coffee beans, soybeans, pistachio nuts, and animal feed. In cases of lung aspergilloma, STG has been found in human tissue specimens. The toxicity of STG affects the liver, kidneys, and immune system. Tumors have been found in the lungs of rodents that were exposed to STG. Oxidative stress becomes measurably elevated during STG exposure, which causes a depletion of antioxidants such as glutathione, particularly in the liver.

RORIDIN E

Roridin E is a macrocyclic trichothecene produced by the mold species Fusarium, Myrothecium, and Stachybotrys (i.e. black mold). Trichothecenes are frequently found in buildings with water damage but can also be found in contaminated grain. This is a very toxic compound, which inhibits protein biosynthesis by preventing peptidyl transferase activity. Trichothecenes are considered extremely toxic and have been used as biological warfare agents. Even low levels of exposure to macrocyclic trichothecenes can cause severe neurological damage, immunosuppression, endocrine disruption, cardiovascular problems, and gastrointestinal distress.

VERRUCARIN A

 Verrucarin A (VRA) is a macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxin produced from Stachybotrys, Fusarium, and Myrothecium. Trichothecenes are frequently found in buildings with water damage but can also be found in contaminated grain. VRA is a small, amphipathic molecule that can move passively across cell membranes. The primary tissues affected by VRA are intestinal and gastric mucosa, bone marrow, and spleen. VRA causes damage to human cells by inhibiting protein and DNA synthesis, disrupting mitochondrial functions, and by producing oxidative stress (due to generation of free radicals).  Exposure to VRA can cause immunological problems, vomiting, skin dermatitis, and hemorrhagic lesions.

ENNIATIN B

Enniatin B is a fungal metabolite categorized as cyclohexa depsipeptides toxin produced by the fungus Fusarium. This strain of fungus is one of the most common cereal contaminants.  Grains in many different countries have recently been contaminated with high levels of enniatin. The toxic effects of enniatin are caused by the inhibition of the acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase, depolarization of mitochondria, and inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption.  Enniatin has antibiotic properties and chronic exposure may lead to weight loss, fatigue, and liver disease. 

ZEARALENONE (ZEA)

Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin that is produced by the mold species Fusarium, and has been shown to be hepatotoxic, haematotoxic, immunotoxic, and genotoxic. ZEA is commonly found in several foods in the US, Europe, Asia, and Africa including wheat, barley, rice, and maize.  ZEA has estrogenic activity and exposure to ZEA can lead to reproductive changes. ZEA’s estrogenic activity is higher than that of other non-steroidal isoflavones (compounds that have estrogen-like effects) such as soy and clover. ZEA exposure can result in thymus atrophy and alter spleen lymphocyte production as well as impaired lymphocyte immune response, which leads to patients being susceptible to disease. 

GLIOTOXIN*

Gliotoxin (GTX) is produced by the mold genus Aspergillus. Aspergillus spreads in the environment by releasing conidia which are capable of infiltrating the small alveolar airways of individuals.  In order to evade the body’s defenses Aspergillus releases Gliotoxin to inhibit the immune system. One of the targets of Gliotoxin is PtdIns (3,4,5) P3. This results in the downregulation of phagocytic immune defense, which can lead to the exacerbation of polymicrobial infections.  Gliotoxin impairs the activation of T-cells and induces apoptosis in monocytes and in monocyte-derived dendritic cells. These impairments can lead to multiple neurological syndromes.

MYCOPHENOLIC ACID*

Mycophenolic Acid (MPA) is produced by the Penicillium fungus. MPA is an immunosuppressant which inhibits the proliferation of B and T lymphocytes. MPA exposure can increase the risk of opportunistic infections such as Clostridia and Candida. MPA is associated with miscarriage and congenital malformations when the woman is exposed in pregnancy.  

DIHYDROCITRINONE*

Dihydrocitrinone is a metabolite of Citrinin (CTN), which is a mycotoxin that is produced by the mold species Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus.  CTN exposure can lead to nephropathy, because of its ability to increase permeability of mitochondrial membranes in the kidneys. The three most common exposure routes are through ingestion, inhalation, and skin contact.  CTN has been shown to be carcinogenic in rat studies.  Multiple studies have linked CTN exposure to a suppression of the immune response.  

CHAETOGLOBOSIN A*

Chaetoglobosin A (CHA) is produced by the mold Chaetomium globosum (CG). CG is commonly found in homes that have experienced water damage. Up to 49% of water-damaged buildings have been found to have CG.  CHA is highly toxic, even at minimal doses. CHA disrupts cellular division and movement.  Most exposure to CG is through the mycotoxins because the spores tend not to aerosolize. Exposure to CHA has been linked to neuronal damage, peritonitis, and cutaneous lesions.

Genera of Molds Tested:

ASPERGILLUS

Aspergillus is the most prevalent mold group in the environment.  It has caused billions of dollars of in damage to crops and livestock.  Two of the most common Aspergillus mycotoxins are aflatoxin and ochratoxin.  The main target of these toxins is the liver.  These toxins have been found in all major cereal crops including peanuts, corn, cotton, millet, rice, sorghum, sunflower seeds, wheat, and a variety of spices.  Theyare also found in eggs, milk, and meat from animals fed contaminated grains.  Diseases caused by Aspergillus are called aspergillosis.  The most common route of infection is through the respiratory system.  Aspergillus can cause severe asthma when the mold colonizes the lung, forming a granulomatous disease.

PENICILLUM

There are over 200 species of Penicillium that have been discovered.  Penicillium chrysogenum is the most common of these species.  It is often found in indoor environments and is responsible for many allergic reactions.  Penicillium is also a known contaminant in many different food items.  Many different types of citrus fruits can become contaminated with Penicillium, but it can also contaminate seeds and grains.  One reason that Penicillium is such a common infestation is because of its ability to thrive in low humidity.  In the home, Penicillium can be found in wallpaper, carpet, furniture, and fiberglass insulation.  The most common mycotoxin produced by Penicillium is ochratoxin (OTA).  Ochratoxin is nephrotoxic, which means that it damages the kidneys.  It is also carcinogenic.

STACHYBOTRYS

Stachybotrys is a greenish-black mold.  This mold can grow on materials with high cellulose and low nitrogen content such as gypsum board, paper, fiberboard, and ceiling tiles.  Stachybotrys is known for its production of the highly toxic macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins.  Two of the more common mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys are roridin E and verrucarin.  In addition to these mycotoxins, the fungus produces nine phenylspirodrimanes, as well as cyclosporine, which are potent immunosuppressors. These immunosupressors along with the mycotoxin trichothecenes may be responsible for the high toxicity of Stachybotrys.

FUSARIUM

Fusarium’s major mycotoxins are zearalenone (ZEN) and fumonisin.  Fusarium fungi grow best in temperate climate conditions.  They require lower temperatures for growth than Aspergillus. Fusarium grows worldwide on many different types of grains including corn and wheat.  Exposure to mycotoxins from Fusarium can lead to both acute and chronic effects.  These symptoms can include abdominal distress, malaise, diarrhea, emesis, and death.  ZEN possesses estrogenic effects and has been implicated in reproductive disorders.

Recommendations for Treatment:

If you or a patient has done a MycoTOX Profile and the results show moderate to high levels of mycotoxins there are things you can do to help the body eliminate the toxins and prevent future exposures.  The first step is to eliminate or reduce exposure to mold.  The majority of exposures result from contaminated food, skin contact, and inhalation of spore-borne toxins, which is often caused by water-damaged buildings.  Inhalation of spore-borne toxins can be limited by detecting and eliminating damp and moldy environments, both indoor and outdoor.

Mold can enter homes through open windows, vents, doorways, and heating and air conditioning systems.  Mold grows well on organic products such as paper, wood, cardboard, and ceiling tiles.  Mold can also grow on insulation, drywall, wallpaper, carpet, fabric, and upholstery.  Mold can be controlled by cleaning and drying after water intrusion; having proper ventilation for showers, laundry, and cooking areas; making sure that windows, roofs, and pipes are free of leaks; and by controlling humidity levels.  After moisture problems are alleviated it is recommended that mold removal be performed by a licensed contractor.  Attempts to remove mold may cause mold spores to scatter and spread to other areas.  In addition, treating mold without proper ventilation could result in health problems caused by the release of mycotoxins from the mold spores.  

Treatment for mold exposure should include fluid support to prevent dehydration.  The drug Oltipraz can increase glutathione conjugation of mold toxins while inhibiting the toxic effect of P450 oxidation, reducing liver toxicity and promoting safer elimination.  A diet of carrots, parsnips, celery, and parsley may reduce the carcinogenic effects of mold. Bentonite clay and zeolite clay are reported to reduce the absorption of mold found in food. Supplementation with chlorophyllin, zinc, A, E, C, NAC, rosmarinic acid, and liposomal glutathione alone or in combination have been shown to mitigate the oxidative effects of mold.

Specimen Requirements:

Urine: 10 mL of the first morning urine before food or drink is suggested.  Fasting for 12 hours may increase the excretion of mycotoxins from the adipose tissue.  However, fasting is not recommended if running this test in combination with other urine tests.

 

Lab – Great Plains Laboratory

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What are organic acids?

Organic acids are chemical compounds excreted in the urine of mammals that are products of metabolism. Metabolism is the sum of chemical reactions in living beings by which the body builds new molecules and breaks down molecules to eliminate waste products and produce energy. Organic acids are organic compounds that are acidic. Organic acids are substances in which carbon and hydrogen are always present but which may also contain the elements of oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus as well.

The names of most organic acids contain the suffix –ic, followed by the word “acid” such as lactic acid. Every organic acid has one or more conjugate bases named with the suffix –ate. Thus, the conjugate base of lactic acid is lactate. Many times, the name of the organic acid and its conjugate base(s) are used interchangeably when discussing physiology and biochemistry, such as lactate or lactic acid. The most common chemical groups associated with organic acids are carboxylic acids which are present in the conjugate base form at neutral pH, 7.0, the pH of the inside of most living cells. Organic acids with one carboxylic acid have one conjugate base while some organic acids may have two or three carboxylic acids and two or three conjugate bases.

How are organic acids measured for medical reasons?

Almost all organic acids used for human testing are measured by a combination of gas or liquid chromatography linked with mass spectrometry. Organic acids are most commonly analyzed in urine because they are not extensively reabsorbed in the kidney tubules after glomerular filtration.  Thus, organic acids in urine are often present at 100 times their concentration in the blood serum and thus are more readily detected in urine.  This is why organic acids are rarely tested in blood or serum. The number of organic acids found in urine is enormous.  Over 1,000 different organic acids have been detected in urine since this kind of testing started.

How are organic acids used in the treatment of disease?

Many genetic disorders are caused by the production of an inefficient enzyme that reacts at a slower than usual rate, resulting in an accumulation of a metabolic intermediate.  More than 50 phenotypically different organic acidemias are now known since the oldest known disease, isovaleric aci­demia, was described in 1966.  An organic acid is any compound that generates protons at the prevailing pH of human blood.  Although some organic acidemias result in lowered blood pH, other organic acidemias are associated with organic acids that are relatively weak and do not typically cause acidosis.  Organic acidemias are disorders of intermediary metabolism that lead to the accumulation of toxic compounds that derange multiple intracellular biochemical pathways including glucose catabolism (glycolysis), glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis), amino acid and ammonia metabolism, purine and pyrimidine metabolism, and fat metabolism.  The accumulation of an organic acid in cells and fluids (plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, or urine) leads to a disease called organic acidemia or organic aciduria.

Clinical presentations of organic acidemias vary widely and may include failure to thrive, intellectual development disorders, hypo- or hyperglycemia, encephalopathy, lethargy, hyperactivity, seizures, dermatitis, dysmorphic facial features, microcephaly, macrocephaly, anemia and/or immune deficiency with frequent infections, ketosis and/or lactic acidosis, hearing, speech, or visual impairment, peripheral neuropathy, sudden cardiorespiratory arrest, nau­sea and coma.  Many organic acidemias are associated with slight to marked increases in plasma ammonia.  Some organic acidemias may be chronic and present in the first few days of life. In others, such as medium chain acyl dehydrogenase deficiency, a child might appear completely normal until a potentially fatal episode of cardiorespiratory arrest.

Many other non-genetic factors can also alter human metabolism. Toxic amounts of the drug acetaminophen and other toxic chemicals can use up a key molecule, glutathione, that helps the body detoxify, leading to the overproduction of the organic acid pyroglutamic acid. Tumors of the adrenal gland called pheochromacytomas can cause the overproduction of the neurotransmitter epinephrine, resulting in marked increases in its metabolite, vanillylmandelic acid (VMA). Genetic diseases of the mitochondria, the cell’s energy source, as well as toxic chemicals that disrupt mitochondrial function cause elevation of succinic acid.  Succinic acid is a key intermediate of both the Kreb’s cycle and the electron transport chain that generates adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the currency for most of the body’s energy transactions.

A number of organic acids directly or indirectly indicate deficiencies of critical vitamins such as vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and others. One of the most important uses of the organic acids test is as an indicator of dysbiosis, an abnormal overgrowth of yeast and bacteria in the intestinal tract. Some of these bacterial byproducts from the intestine enter the blood stream and may alter the metabolism of neurotransmitters such as dopamine.

Organic Acids Test (OAT) Nutritional & Metabolic Profile

The Organic Acids Test (OAT) offers a comprehensive metabolic snapshot of a patient’s overall health with 76 markers.  It provides an accurate evaluation of intestinal yeast and bacteria.  Abnormally high levels of these microorganisms can cause or worsen behavior disorders, hyperactivity, movement disorders, fatigue and immune function. Many people with chronic illnesses and neurological disorders often excrete several abnormal organic acids in their urine. The cause of these high levels could include oral antibiotic use, high sugar diets, immune deficiencies, acquired infections, as well as genetic factors.

Our Organic Acids Test also includes markers for vitamin and mineral levels, oxidative stress, neurotransmitter levels, and is the only OAT to include markers for oxalates, which are highly correlated with many chronic illnesses.

If abnormalities are detected using the OAT, treatments can include supplements, such as vitamins and antioxidants, or dietary modification. Upon treatment, patients and practitioners have reported significant improvement such as decreased fatigue, regular bowel function, increased energy and alertness, increased concentration, improved verbal skills, less hyperactivity, and decreased abdominal pain. The OAT is strongly recommended as the initial screening test.

The Microbial Organic Acids Test (MOAT) is ideal for follow-up to the OAT and is often recommended by practitioners looking for a specific abnormality, to monitor certain microbial imbalances, or to assess treatment efficacy.

Specimen requirements:

Urine: 10 mL of first morning urine before food or drink is suggested. Patient should avoid apples, grapes (including raisins), pears, cranberries and their juices 48 hours prior to specimen collection.  Avoid arabinogalactan, echinacea, reishi mushrooms, and ribose supplements for 48 hours before collection.

Lab – Great Plains Laboratory

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Whole blood metals are the standard for diagnosis of lead, mercury or other metal toxicity or poisoning, and are also used to assess recent or ongoing exposure to potentially toxic elements. Serum elements are used to assess the status of key elements and electrolytes that have important functions in the extracellular fluid compartment of blood. Whole Blood and Serum Elements tests are available separately or as part of the Comprehensive Blood Elements profile.

This test is useful for:

  • Alopecia
  • Anemia
  • Bone Density
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Depression
  • Dermatitis or Poor Wound Healing
  • Detoxification Therapy
  • Fatigue
  • Malabsorption
  • Hypertension
  • Immune Dysfunction
  • Impaired Glucose Tolerance
  • Inflammation
  • Kidney Function
  • Nutritional Deficiencies
  • Parkinson’s-like Symptoms
  • Sexual Impotence or Decreased Testosterone Production
  • Vision Problems

Detailed Information:

Blood elemental analysis should be performed prior to the initiation of, and intermittingly during, metal detoxification. Toxic metals disrupt essential element metabolism and are antagonistic to some elements such as cadmium to zinc and lead to calcium. Further, commonly utilized metal detoxification agents can cause significantly increased urinary wasting of some essential elements. For example, EDTA has a very high affinity for zinc and manganese, and DMPS results in marked increases in copper excretion. Therefore, appropriate evaluation of essential element status is an integral component of safe and effective metal detoxification therapy.

Analysis of toxic elements/metals in whole blood is useful for assessment of recent or ongoing exposure to the toxins, but does not provide accurate information about net retention of toxic metals in the body. For example, blood lead levels peak about five hours after acute exposure and then decrease exponentially with a half-life in blood of about one month. Evaluation and elimination of ongoing exposure to toxic metals is another important component of efficient metal detoxification.

Accurate assessment of essential element status in the most appropriate compartment is highly recommended for determination of appropriate supplementation. The absorption, transport and metabolism of essential elements is highly integrated and regulated. Inappropriate supplementation or dietary imbalance of elements can have significant adverse health effects. For example, excess intake of zinc or molybdenum can result in copper deficiency and excess assimilation of manganese can have serious neurotoxic effects that are expressed as Parkinson’s-like disease.

Whole blood analysis is an excellent test for measuring the levels of both intracellular and extracellular circulating elements. Extracellular elements have functions in serum/plasma or are transported to tissues in serum/plasma associated with specific proteins or albumen. Intracellular elements have very specific functions as obligatory constituents of metalloproteins/enzymes in red blood cells and lymphocytes. The red and white blood cells serve as surrogate cells representative of peripheral cells in general. Some essential elements, such as selenium, are portioned in and have important physiological roles in both the intracellular and extracellular compartments. Likewise, the toxic metal lead is transported in both the fluid and cellular (red blood cells) compartments of blood. Therefore measurement of elements in both blood compartments permits a more complete evaluation of total blood element levels.

Blood elemental analysis is available in whole blood, in serum and as a Comprehensive Blood Elements profile which is comprised of both whole blood and serum elements. It is highly recommended that blood and serum specimens be collected after an overnight fast to avoid the acute influence of a meal.

Lab – Doctor’s Data

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Analysis of elements in stool provides a means to assess oral exposure, and to a lesser extent endogenous detoxification of potentially toxic metals. For several toxic elements such as mercury, cadmium, lead, antimony and uranium, biliary excretion of metals into feces is a primary natural route of elimination from the body. Specimen collection is convenient for the patient and only requires a single-step procedure.

Elements are measured by ICP-MS and expressed on a dry weight basis to eliminate variability related to water content of the specimen. To provide guidance in interpretation of results, patient values are plotted graphically with respect to percentile distribution of the population base.

This test is useful for:

  • Dietary Exposure to Toxic Elements
  • Mercury Exposure from Dental Amalgams

Detailed Information:

Analysis of elements in stool provides a comprehensive evaluation of dietary exposure, and to a lesser extent endogenous detoxification of potentially toxic metals. A primary objective of preventive medicine is avoidance or removal of exposure to toxic substances. The results of stool elemental analysis can help identify and eliminate dietary exposure to toxic metals. The rate of oral absorption of toxic metals varies considerably among elements, and among subspecies of a particular element. Orally, the percent absorption of elemental nickel, cadmium and lead is usually quite low, but varies significantly in part due to the relative abundance of antagonistic essential elements in the diet. That is particularly evident for lead and calcium, and cadmium and zinc. Chronic, low-level assimilation of the toxic metals may result in accumulation in the body. Since this test reflects both oral exposure and biliary excretion of metals, overt clinical associations are not directly implied.

Studies performed at Doctor’s Data demonstrate that the stool mercury (Hg) content and number of amalgam surfaces are highly correlated. It also clear that stool Hg levels for people with dental amalgams are remarkably similar from day to day. Therefore, people with several amalgams in place will typically have higher concentrations of stool Hg than people without amalgams. A direct association between stool Hg levels and health has not been established, but a land mark study of amalgam placement in monkeys indicated there was an associated induction of co-resistance to both Hg and antibiotics by pathogenic bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract, particularly for species in the Enterobacteriaceae family. Such was also reported for miners exposed to elemental Hg while working in gold mines.

For several toxic elements such as mercury, cadmium, lead, and antimony, biliary excretion of metals into stool is a primary natural route of elimination from the body. The process by which the body eliminates the sulfhydryl reactive metals is through the formation of metal-glutathione complexes that are excreted into the bile and urine. Elemental analysis of stool specimens may provide a tool to monitor the efficacy of natural detoxification of metals in infants or patients who are on very limited or “clean” diets that do not contain contaminated solid foods.

The unique Toxic Metals; Stool Test evaluates levels of thallium and gadolinium which are of increasing potential concern, plus 14 other potentially toxic elements. Specimen collection is convenient for the patient and only requires a single-step procedure. Sixteen elements are measured by ICP-MS and expressed on a dry weight basis to eliminate variability related to water content of the specimen.

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Urine Elements are traditionally used to evaluate exposure to potentially toxic elements and wasting of nutrient elements. Additionally, the comparison of urine element concentrations before and after administration of a chelator can be used to estimate net retention of potentially toxic elements. Subsequent urine element analyses, also following the administration of a chelator, are useful for monitoring the efficacy of metal detoxification therapy. Results are expressed per 24 hours or creatinine corrected to account for urine dilution effects.

This test is useful for:

  • Toxic Element Exposure
  • Alopecia
  • Bone Density
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Depression
  • Dermatitis or Poor Wound Healing
  • Detoxifiction Therapy
  • Fatigue
  • Gastrointestinal Symptoms
  • Hypertension
  • Immune Function
  • Impaired Glucose Tolerance
  • Inflammation
  • Kidney Function
  • Nutritional Deficiencies
  • Parkinson’s-like Symptoms

Detailed Information:

Analysis of the levels of toxic metals in urine after the administration of a metal detoxification agent is an objective way to evaluate the accumulation of toxic metals. Acute metal poisoning is rare. More common, however, is a chronic, low-level exposure to toxic metals that can result in significant retention in the body that can be associated with a vast array of adverse health effects and chronic disease.

One cannot draw valid conclusions about adverse health effects of metals without assessing net retention. For an individual, toxicity occurs when net retention exceeds physiological tolerance. Net retention is determined by the difference between the rates of assimilation and excretion of metals. To evaluate net retention, one compares the levels of metals in urine before and after the administration of a pharmaceutical metal detoxification agent such as EDTA, DMSA or DMPS. Different compounds have different affinities for specific metals, but all function by sequestering “hidden” metals from deep tissue stores and mobilizing the metals to the kidneys for excretion in the urine.

It is important to perform both pre- and post-provocation urinalysis to permit distinction between ongoing exposures to metals (pre-) and net bodily retention. The pre-provocation urine collection can also be utilized to assess the rate of creatinine clearance if a serum specimen is also submitted.

Many clinicians also request the analysis of essential elements in urine specimens to evaluate nutritional status and the efficacy of mineral supplementation during metal detoxification therapy. Metal detoxification agents can significantly increase the excretion of specific nutrient elements such as zinc, copper, manganese and molybdenum.

Chromium metabolism authorities suggest that 24-hour chromium excretion likely provides the best assessment of chromium status. Early indication of renal dysfunction can be gleaned from urinary wasting of essential elements such as magnesium, calcium, potassium and sodium in an unprovoked specimen.

Variability in urine volume can drastically affect the concentration of elements. To compensate for urine dilution variation, elements are expressed per unit creatinine for timed collections. For 24-hour collections, elements are reported as both units per 24 hours and units per creatinine.

LabDoctor’s Data

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Hair Elements analysis provides information regarding recent and ongoing exposure to potentially toxic metals, especially methylmercury and arsenic, and time-averaged status of specific nutrient elements. This noninvasive screening test requires only .25 grams of hair. Doctor’s Data offers a Hair Elements profile containing essential and toxic elements and a Hair Toxic Element Exposure profile containing an expanded lineup of toxic metals.

This test is useful for:

  • Toxic Element Exposure
  • Excessive Fish Consumption
  • Alopecia
  • Depression
  • Fatigue
  • Malabsorption
  • Hypertension
  • Impaired Glucose Tolerance
  • Kidney Function
  • Parkinson’s-like Symptoms
  • Sexual Impotence or Decreased Testosterone Production
  • Vision Problems

Detailed Information:

A specialist and pioneer in essential and toxic elemental testing since 1972, Doctor’s Data has been validated as a supplier of trace element results for the certification of a hair reference material to the European Commission Joint Research Centre.

With respect to its contained elements, hair is essentially an excretory tissue rather than a functional tissue. Hair element analysis provides important information which, in conjunction with symptoms and other laboratory values, can assist the physician with an early diagnosis of physiological disorders associated with aberrations in essential and toxic element metabolism.

As protein is synthesized in the hair follicle, elements are incorporated permanently into the hair with no further exchange or equilibration with other tissues. Scalp hair is easy to sample, and because it grows an average of one to two cm per month, it contains a “temporal record” of element metabolism and exposure to toxic elements.

Nutrient elements including magnesium, chromium, zinc, copper and selenium are obligatory co-factors for hundreds of important enzymes and also are essential for the normal functions of vitamins. The levels of these elements in hair are correlated with levels in organs and other tissues.

Toxic elements may be 200 to 300 times more highly concentrated in hair than in blood or urine. Therefore, hair is the tissue of choice for detection of recent exposure to elements such as arsenic, aluminum, cadmium, lead, antimony and mercury. The CDC acknowledges the value of hair mercury levels as a maternal and infant marker for exposure to neurotoxic methylmercury from fish.

Through recent vast improvements in technology, instrumentation and application of scientific protocols, hair element analysis has become a valuable tool for providing dependable and useful data for physicians and their patients. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency stated in a recent report that “…if hair samples are properly collected and cleaned, and analyzed by the best analytic methods, using standards and blanks as required, in a clean and reliable laboratory by experienced personnel, the data are reliable.” (U.S.E.P.A. 600/4-79-049)

Hair, however, is vulnerable to external elemental contamination by means of certain shampoos, bleaches, dyes, and curing or straightening treatments. Therefore, the first step in the interpretation of a hair element report is to rule out sources of external contamination.

Hair element analysis is a valuable and inexpensive screen for physiological excess, deficiency or maldistribution of elements. It should not be considered a stand-alone diagnostic test for essential element function, and should be used in conjunction with patient symptoms and other laboratory tests. Doctor’s Data offers a Hair Toxic and Essential Elements profile and a Hair Toxic Element Exposure profile containing an expanded lineup of toxic metals.

LabDoctor’s Data

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Immune System

 

Lyme disease is an infection caused by the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii. Lyme disease tests measure Borrelia antibodies in the blood, or in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) if there are signs and symptoms of central nervous system disease.

These antibodies are produced by the body’s immune system in response to Borrelia infection, also called Lyme disease. It is spread by the bites of infected deer ticks or black-legged ticks. The disease is most common in the spring and summer in the regions where these ticks live, such as the northeastern, mid-Atlantic, and midwestern United States.

Lyme disease infection causes symptoms that may include a characteristic erythema migrans (EM) or “bulls-eye” rash that spreads from the site of the bite, fever, chills, headache, and fatigue. If left untreated, Lyme disease may progress to cause intermittent joint pain and swelling, meningitis, facial paralysis (Bell’s palsy), weakness and numbness in the arms and legs, memory problems, and may rarely affect the heart or eyes. For more on Lyme disease, read the condition article: Lyme Disease. 

It takes the body’s immune system some time to begin producing Borrelia antibodies. Lab tests can detect two different classes of antibodies. IgM antibodies are usually detectable about two to three weeks after onset of infection and IgG antibodies are detectable several weeks after onset of infection. (See the How is the test used? section for more details on the tests.)

Lyme disease tests are used to determine if your signs and symptoms are due to an infection caused by the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi or Borrelia mayonii. The tests detect antibodies produced by the immune system in response to the infection.

Lab tests are used to detect two different classes of antibody:

  • Borrelia IgM (immunoglobulin M) antibodies can usually be detected in the blood about two to three weeks after infection. IgM levels increase and then peak at about six weeks and then begin to decline.
  • IgG (immunoglobulin G) antibodies cannot be detected until several weeks after infection. Levels peak at about four to six months later and may remain at high levels for several years.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that two different methods be used to detect these antibodies and to confirm a diagnosis of Lyme disease.

  • The initial test may use methods such as an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) or immunofluorescence (IFA) method to measure Borrelia IgM and/or IgG antibodies. The initial test is intended to be very sensitive so that it will detect as many cases of Lyme disease as possible. However, it may be positive with infections caused by other bacteria similar to Borrelia, such as a different tick-borne disease or syphilis, or in other conditions such as an autoimmune disorder (e.g., lupus).
  • The CDC recommends that any positive or indeterminate results from an initial test be followed by a second test, called a Western blot that detects specific antibodies to multiple antigens, to confirm the findings.

Lyme disease can sometimes be challenging to diagnose. If a person has removed a tick from his or her skin, had a known tick bite, and lives in or has visited an area of the country where Lyme disease is most prevalent, then the timing of the potential infection can be closely estimated. However, the tick is about the size of the head of a pin and the bite may not be noticed. Not everyone will develop the characteristic rash, and the symptoms that a person does have may be nonspecific and flu-like in the early stages, with joint pain that develops into chronic arthritis and/or with neurological symptoms that appear months later.

A blood test for antibodies to the bacteria is the preferred test for the diagnosis of Lyme disease. However, if a person has central nervous system symptoms, such as meningitis, then IgM, IgG, and western blot testing may sometimes be performed on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

In special cases, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing may be performed on a sample because it is a more sensitive way of detecting an infection with Borrelia. However, this is not an FDA cleared or approved test method and it is not widely available. The CDC does not currently recommend PCR testing for the diagnosis of Lyme disease.

When is it ordered?

Lyme disease testing is ordered when you have signs and symptoms suggesting an infection with Borrelia and you live in or visited a region where deer ticks are common, especially when you were recently bitten by a tick.

Some early signs and symptoms of Lyme disease may include:

  • A characteristic “bulls-eye” rash that spreads from the site of the bite
  • Fever, chills
  • Headache
  • Fatigue
  • Muscle and joint aches
  • Swollen lymph nodes

If left untreated, Lyme disease may progress to cause:

  • Muscle and joint pain that comes and goes
  • Stiff neck and severe headaches (meningitis)
  • Facial weakness and paralysis (Bell’s palsy)
  • Weakness and pain in the arms and legs
  • Arthritis with joint pain and swelling that comes and goes, especially in larger joints like the knees
  • Spells of dizziness or being short of breath
  • Shooting pains, numbness or tingling in the hands or feet
  • Memory loss, difficulty concentrating, and changes in sleep patterns
  • Less commonly, eye inflammation or heart problems such as irregular heartbeat

Testing may be repeated a few weeks later when initial testing is negative but suspicion of Lyme disease remains high.

What does the test result mean?

A healthy adult who has never been infected by Borrelia bacteria will not have any antibodies.

A positive result on both initial and confirmatory tests means that your signs and symptoms are likely caused by Lyme disease.

A positive result for IgM antibody but negative results for IgG and Western blot may mean that you have a very recent infection or a positive when you do not have Lyme disease (false-positive).

A negative IgM result but positive results for IgG and Western blot tests means it is likely that you have a later stage infection or had an infection at some time in the past.

Negative results on all tests mean your symptoms are due to another cause or the antibody levels are too low to detect at that time; retesting in 2 to 3 weeks may be needed to confirm or rule out infection.

Negative results on IgM and Western blot but positive IgG results mean that you have recovered from Lyme disease or the results are due to antibodies produced in response to a different condition (cross-reacting) and your symptoms are due to another cause.

Is there anything else I should know?

Once someone has had Lyme disease, the person will typically have detectable amounts of Borrelia IgG antibodies in their blood for the rest of their life.

Borrelia belongs to a class of bacteria called spirochetes. Other spirochete diseases, such as syphilis and leptospirosis, can cause false-positive results, as can other conditions such as HIV infection, mononucleosis, and a variety of autoimmune disorders.

When you do not have typical signs and symptoms or a history of a tick bite and have not been in a region where Lyme disease is prevalent, then your healthcare provider may rule out other causes for your symptoms before suspecting and testing for Lyme disease.

Where can I read more about the treatment of Lyme disease?

Most people with Lyme disease are treated with antibiotics. For more on Lyme disease treatment, see the Lyme Disease Treatment page on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention web site.

Can I do anything to protect myself from becoming infected?

Yes. If you are in the woods or garden in tick-infested areas, avoid contact with the soil, leaves, and vegetation. Wear closed shoes, light-colored clothing, and use insect repellant containing 20-30% DEET or permethrin. Check your clothing and exposed skin frequently and remove ticks promptly. Animals such as dogs, cats, horses, and cows can also carry the deer tick. Check your pet often, particularly the head, neck, ears, and between the toes. Use a tick repellent prescribed by your veterinarian.

How can I recognize the signs if I don’t show the rash?

The rash appears in up to 75% of those infected. This rash may be the classic “bull’s eye,” but may also be blotchy or red and may be confused with poison ivy, spider bites, or ringworm. It may appear between a few days and a few weeks after being bitten and can disappear quickly. If possible, take a picture of the rash to show your healthcare provider since the rash may be gone before you can get an appointment.

Other symptoms of Lyme disease include fatigue, chills and fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, and swollen lymph nodes. Check with your healthcare provider if you have any of these symptoms and cannot explain how you got them.

Should I be tested for Lyme disease if I don’t have any symptoms?

Testing people who do not have symptoms is not recommended; the tests tend to have a higher incidence of false positives when this is done. This is true even when someone has been bitten by a deer tick, also known as the black legged tick. Not every tick bite will result in an infection. Not every tick is infected with Borrelia and even with those that are, it typically takes between 24 and 72 hours from the time a tick attaches to a person for the bacterium to be transmitted. If a tick is promptly removed, then the risk of getting Lyme disease is decreased. Those who have been bitten should talk to their healthcare provider if they develop any symptoms or if they have any concerns.

What is Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome?

In a small percentage of people treated for Lyme disease with the recommended 2-4 week course of antibiotics, symptoms including fatigue and joint and muscle pain linger, sometimes for more than 6 months. This has been given the name Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome (PTLDS). Research is ongoing to better understand the cause of this syndrome. People should be aware that if their symptoms continue after treatment, they should contact their healthcare provider to discuss ways in which to manage these symptoms.

Can ticks be tested for Lyme disease?

Yes, some state and local public health departments offer testing of ticks as well as identification of the types that transmit Lyme disease. You can check with your health department to see if it offers these. However, testing ticks may not always be useful for a few reasons. Even though a tick is positive for Lyme disease, it does not mean it passed it on to you. If it is negative, it may give false reassurance because you could have been bitten by a different tick that is infected. And if you are infected, you may develop symptoms before you get the tick results. You should not wait for those results if you are ill and should consult your healthcare provider.

Lab – LabCorp 

 

 

 

SARS-CoV-2 IgG Antibody; serum

Identify front line healthcare providers, patients, and community populations who have potentially developed an immune response to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Doctor’s Data is utilizing a SARS-CoV-2 IgG qualitative immunoassay from Beckman Coulter that offers a confirmed 99.6% specificity and 100% sensitivity at 18 days post PCR confirmed positive test.

Detailed Information:

Identify front line healthcare providers, patients, and community populations who have potentially developed an immune response to the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing could be used as a tool to determine who has already been infected, and might have immunity to the virus. Doctor’s Data is utilizing a SARS-CoV-2 IgG qualitative immunoassay from Beckman Coulter that offers a confirmed 99.6% specificity and 100% sensitivity at 18 days post PCR confirmed positive test. Currently, this is the only IgG assay from the top four in vitro diagnostic manufacturers that detects antibodies targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) on the spike protein. It is believed that these antibodies have the potential to be neutralizing antibodies, and may play a role in lasting immunity. This is also a reason many vaccine developers are also targeting the RBD spike protein due to its neutralizing potential.

Henry Ford Health System recently performed an independent validation of the assay’s performance. When running the assay on 204 PCR-confirmed COVID-19 samples, the test sensitivity was 100% at 14 days post-PCR. When testing 80 patient samples from the pre-COVID era, this assay produced a specificity of 100%.

Serology testing can be beneficial as nearly 81% of infected people are asymptomatic or have mild to moderate symptoms. Generally, IgG is developed against an antigen 7-14 days after infection, and can remain detectable for months and years, depending upon the specific antigen and the patient. 

This test targets antibodies to the RBD of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein that may be more likely to confer immunity, based on laboratory studies. The spike protein in a coronavirus is the major surface protein that is uses to bind to a receptor. This spike protein mediates entry into host cells by attaching to a receptor on respiratory cells called angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, or ACE2.6.

Antibodies against the RBD may promote neutralization of SARS-CoV-2, indicating an effective measure of immunity when compared to antibodies against other SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins.

However, immunity, in terms of timing and characteristics, are still uncertain due to the limited experience with SARS-CoV-2. Results from antibody testing should not be used as the sole basis to diagnose or exclude acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. If acute infection is suspected, direct testing for SARS-CoV-2 via PCR is recommended. False positive results may occur due to past or present infection with non-SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus strains, such as coronavirus HKU1, NL63, OC43, or 229E.

This test has not been FDA cleared or approved. This test has been authorized by FDA under an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA). This test is only authorized for the duration of the declaration that circumstances exist justifying the authorization of emergency use of in vitro diagnostics for detection and/or diagnosis of COVID-19 under Section 564(b)(1) of the Act, 21 U.S.C. 360bbb-3(b)(1), unless the authorization is terminated or revoked sooner.

Lab: Doctor’s Data

 

Click: Sample Report

 

Blood Brain Barrier Protein IgG + IgA combined

Blood Brain Barrier Protein IgM

Lab – Cyrex

 

Arthritic Peptide IgG + IgA Combined

Collagen Complex IgG + IgA Combined

Fibulin IgG + IgA Combined

Lab – Cyrex

 

Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase 65 (GAD 65) IgG + IgA Combined

Insulin + Islet Cell Antigen IgG + IgA Combined

Lab – Cyrex

 

Myelin Basic Protein IgG + IgA Combined

Myelin Basic Protein IgM

Asialoganglioside IgG + IgA Combined

Asialoganglioside IgM

Alpha + Beta Tubulin IgG + IgA Combined

Alpha + Beta Tubulin IgM

Cerebellar IgG + IgA Combined

Cerebellar IgM

Synapsin IgG + IgA Combined

Synapsin IgM

Lab – Cyrex

 

 

Parietal Cell + ATPase IgG + IgA Combined                

Intrinsic Factor IgG + IgA Combined                             

ASCA + ANCA IgG + IgA Combined                                 

Tropomyosin IgG + IgA Combined                       

Thyroglobulin IgG + IgA Combined                    

Thyroid Peroxidase (TPO) IgG + IgA Combined           

21 Hydroxylase (Adrenal Cortex) IgG + IgA Combined                         

Myocardial Peptide IgG + IgA Combined                   

Alpha-Myosin IgG + IgA Combined

Phospholipid IgG + IgA Combined                      

Platelet Glycoprotein IgG + IgA Combined                               

Ovary/Testis* IgG + IgA Combined                          

Fibulin IgG + IgA Combined                            

Collagen Complex IgG + IgA Combined                             

Arthritic Peptide IgG + IgA Combined                     

Osteocyte IgG + IgA Combined                     

Cytochrome P450 (Hepatocyte) IgG + IgA Combined         

Insulin + Islet Cell Antigen IgG + IgA Combined                

Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase 65 (GAD 65) IgG + IgA Combined                                

Myelin Basic Protein IgG + IgA Combined

Asialoganglioside IgG + IgA Combined

Alpha + Beta Tubulin IgG + IgA Combined                               

Cerebellar IgG + IgA Combined                         

Synapsin IgG + IgA Combined       

                           
* Ovary and Testis are tested together to avoid any confusion
arising out of potential cross-reactivity.

Lab – Cyrex

Genetics and Anti-Aging

 

Methylation refers to the biochemical pathway in which methyl groups (one carbon and three hydrogen atoms) are added to molecules. Because it is involved in nearly all of the body’s functions, it contributes to countless biological processes including:

  •  Detoxification
  •  Energy production
  •  Genetic expression/DNA repair
  •  Inflammatory, immune, and stress response
  •  Neurotransmitter balance
  •  Production and recycling of glutathione

An inability to methylate properly can disrupt any of these processes, ultimately compromising one’s health as the body is not able to effectively respond due to the shortage of methyl groups. Impaired detoxification, cardiovascular disease, neurological problems, and weakened immune functioning in general, are some conditions linked to undermethylation 

Expected Turnaround Time: 11-13 business days    

Lab – Spectracell

ClickSample Report

 

Telomeres are sections of genetic material that form a protective cap at the end of each chromosome in every cell of the body. When a cell divides, the telomere gets a tiny bit shorter, until there is no more telomere left to protect DNA from “unraveling,” and the cell dies. Cellular death causes the body to age, thus making telomeres a novel biomarker for biological age. The longer one’s telomeres, the younger one’s biological age.

Moreover, the rate at which telomeres shorten is accelerated by inflammation, oxidative stress, nutritional deficiencies, genetic pre-disposition, and other lifestyle habits. Telomere shortening, when expedited, contributes to cardiovascular disease, dementia, stroke, and cancers.

Expected Turnaround Time: 14-15 business days 

Lab – Spectracell

ClickSample Report

 

Oxidative stress is adversely involved in many pathophysiological processes, aging and cancer. Oxidation of DNA occurs readily at the guanosine bases, so measurement of 8-hydroxy-2′- Deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in urine provides a quantitative assessment of ongoing oxidative damage or stress in the body. When 8-OHdG levels are elevated, it’s important to identify the sources of oxidative stress and assess the primary intracellular antioxidant glutathione. Taking steps to reduce oxidative stress is valuable in optimizing health and longevity. This non-invasive test requires a single first morning void (FMV) urine collection.

This test is useful for:

  • Oxidative Stress
  • Metabolic Syndrome
  • Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Atopic Dermatitis
  • Cancer
  • Chronic Hepatitis
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Diabetic Nephropathy
  • Diabetic Retinopathy
  • Environmental Exposure
  • Huntington’s Disease
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  • Pancreatitis
  • Parkinson’s Disease
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis

Detailed Information:

Urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is an excellent biomarker of oxidative stress and a risk factor for a variety of diseases, including cancer. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced as a result of normal oxygen metabolism or exposure to xenobiotics. Excessive levels are associated with oxidative damage to lipids, proteins and DNA. ROS-induced damage to nuclear and mitochondrial DNA occurs readily at the guanosine bases that are removed by DNA repair mechanisms and excreted in urine. 8-OHdG is the most frequently detected and studied oxidized nucleoside of DNA that is considered to be premutagenic due to its potential for initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis. Bladder and prostate cancers have been associated with elevated levels of 8-OHdG.

Oxidative stress and ROS-induced elevations of 8-OHdG have been associated with numerous pathological processes including cystic fibrosis, atopic dermatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, pancreatitis, chronic hepatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and neurological diseases such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s. Elevated levels of 8-OHdG also have been associated with hyperglycemia and have been positively correlated with HbA1c and the severity of nephropathy and retinopathy in diabetics.

Environmental factors, lifestyle choices such as smoking and recreational drugs, and some pharmaceuticals have also been associated with elevated urine levels of 8-OHdG. Known environmental factors include exposure to ionizing radiation such as indoor radon, asbestos, toxic metals and metal fumes such as manganese, chromium and vanadium, diesel exhaust, benzene, styrene, toluene and zylenes. In grade school children exposure to toxic or carcinogenic metals released from coal-fired power plants as assessed by measurement of elements in urine was significantly correlated with urine levels of 8-OHdG.

Moderately elevated levels of 8-OHdG have been associated with inadequate intake of carotenoids, antioxidant-rich foods and supplemental antioxidants. A finding of an elevated level of 8-OHdG in a first morning urine void warrants identification of the sources of oxidative stress/inflammation and assessment of the primary intracellular antioxidant glutathione. The efficacy of therapeutic intervention to ameliorate oxidative stress should be monitored by subsequent retesting of urine 8-OHdG and glutathione levels.

Lab – Doctor’s Data

ClickSample Report

 

The DiagnosTechs Bone Health Panel measures 6 different hormones through saliva, as well as a key bone biomarker in urine to asses the health of your bones thus minimizing loss of density and preventing fractures.

The Bone Health Panel uses convenient, noninvasive testing of your saliva to evaluate estrogen (estradiol), progesterone, testosterone, DHEA, cortisol, and follicle stimulating hormone. In tandem, we measure Pyrilinks-D from urine, which is a sensitive indicator of bone loss and provides valuable information about your bone health. The biomarkers assessed by the Bone Health Panel provide valuable data for patients who may be at risk for osteopenia or osteoporosis.

Additionally, the Bone Health Panel offers an objective way to monitor the efficacy of bone loss treatment strategies including correction of hormonal abnormalities, vitamin and mineral supplementation, dietary and lifestyle changes, and/or pharmacologic interventions. Our Bone Health Panel can detect decreases in bone density at an early stage allowing intervention before acute symptoms appear, and in contrast to traditional screening, our panel is noninvasive and does not involve x-ray radiation or blood draws.

Why use our Bone Health Panel?

  • In saliva, the active (free) form of each hormone is measured
  • Pyrilinks-D is a bone metabolism marker found in urine
  • Saliva and urine samples can be conveniently collected in your home
  • Collection is painless and noninvasive

How can our Bone Health Panel can be of use to you?

Your doctor can use the Pyrilinks-D urine test within this panel to:

  • Screen for osteoporosis in conjunction with bone densitometry.
  • As a follow-up test to monitor the bone response in hormone replacement therapy and/or osteoporosis treatment protocols.

Why is it important to test your bone health?

  • Worldwide, one in three women and one in five men over 50 will experience an osteoporotic fracture
  • People who suffer from a hip fracture have a 20% or greater risk of dying during the following year
  • One in three adults who lived independently before a hip fracture remain in a nursing home for at least a year after injury
  • A 50-year-old woman has a 2.8% risk of death related to hip fracture during her remaining lifetime, equivalent to her risk of death from breast cancer and four times higher than that from endometrial cancer*

*All facts and statistics are based on research studies cited by the International Osteoporosis Foundation www.iofbonehealth.org/facts-statistics

What Is Bone Aging?

Bone turnover is a process that takes place throughout our lifetimes. It is a delicate balance between bone formation and breakdown. In childhood and early adulthood, the process is strongly in favor of bone formation, and this continues up to the age of 20 to 30 years. From then on, there is a gradual thinning and loss of bone with age. Around the onset of menopause, bone turnover tilts in favor of bone breakdown. This is due to the persistent imbalance or decline in estrogen, progesterone, and other hormones.

Does it affect your Health?

Yes, it does. Bone aging leads to a disease called osteoporosis that results in bone thinning and, more importantly, bone fragility. Osteoporosis can affect you and your loved ones in several ways:

  • Middle-aged and elderly people lose a few inches of their height due to osteoporosis.
  • Many seniors are prone to hip fractures secondary to osteoporosis.
  • 1.5 million bone fractures, at various body sites, occur annually secondary to osteoporosis.

Lab – Diagnostechs

Click – Sample Report

Cardiovascular Health

 

This advanced test evaluates risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) plus metabolic factors associated with metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes.  In addition to the traditional CVD risk factors, the test includes much more clinically sensitive atherogenic lipoprotein sub-species, the primary apolipoproteins, arterial inflammation and the activity of the lipoprotein- associated phospholipase- A2 (PLAC).  PLAC activity is a very sensitive indicator of active atherogenesis and instability of advanced arterial plaque.  Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is centered around insulin resistance and atherogenic dyslipoproteinemia, and is a risk factor associated with CVD and kidney disease. The test includes cystatin C to better assess glomerular filtration, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol (Glycomark®) that is a better indicator of hyperglycemic episodes than HbA1C.  The primary adipokines associated with insulin sensitivity and hepatic fatty acid metabolism are also addressed.

This test is useful for:

  • Family or personal history of CVD
  • Excess abdominal fat
  • Obesity
  • Insulin resistance
  • Fatty liver disease

Detailed Information:

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the second leading cause of death in North America. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a risk factor for CVD and renal damage. Therefor this comprehensive test evaluates risk for CVD plus too often associated MetS. Many of the risk factors and metabolic abnormalities associated with both CVD and MetS are lifestyle related. Objective advanced laboratory assessment of abnormalities in glucose, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and adipokines facilitate individualized clinical intervention and can improve clinical outcomes.

Cardiovascular Risk

Well beyond the traditional levels of serum total lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol levels, this test assesses the levels of the most highly atherogenic apolipoprotein B containing lipoproteins. Formulas can used to calculate the levels of low density (LDL) and very low density VLDL) lipoprotein cholesterol, but when plasma triglycerides (TG) are high the calculated LDL and VLDL cholesterol values may be markedly underestimated.

Assessment of non-HDL lipoprotein cholesterol levels, irrespective of TG levels provides accurate assessment of cholesterol transported in atherogenic LDL sub-species, VLDL, IDL and remnant particles. The levels of the real LDL culprits such as oxidized LDL, small dense LDL and lipoprotein(a) have much greater predictive power than LDL-cholesterol. The levels of the important protein constituents of anti-atherogenic HDL (apo AI) and atherogenic LDL species (apo B) are also reported. CVD is an inflammatory condition so artery-specific hsCRP levels are reported. The enzymatic activity of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase-A2 (PLAC®) provides an indication of very significant atherogenic disease activity, inflammation and increased risk for rupture of advanced plaque. Elevated PLAC® activity is a very strong predictor of coronary events and CVD-related mortality regardless of cholesterol levels.

Metabolomics

MetS with core features of insulin resistance, central adiposity and mixed dyslipidemia is associated with risk for CVD and kidney disease. Fasting glucose and insulin levels are augmented with a sensitive biomarker of hyperglycemic episodes that are missed using HbA1C. Low serum levels of the dietary glucose-like sugar 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG, Glycomark®) indicate daily hyperglycemic episodes over the past two weeks. Postprandial hyperglycemia is associated with cardiovascular disease and renal damage, and reduction of hyperglycemic events appears to decrease macro- and microvascular complications in diabetic patients. Cystain C is an excellent maker of glomerular filtration. As glomerular function declines, the serum levels of cystatin C rise. Cystatin C is an extracellular cysteine protease inhibitor that is produced by almost all cells. As such it is considered to be a better indicator of GFR than serum creatinine or calculated estimated GFR (eGFR).

Adipokines, hormones produced by fat cells, are regulators of insulin sensitivity, inflammation, oxidative stress and hepatic fatty acid oxidation and secretion of plasma triglycerides. With increased adiposity the level of adiponectin declines. Low levels of adiponectin are associated with marked increases in risk for developing metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes and coronary artery disease. In contrast levels of leptin increase due to leptin resistance that is associated with loss of appetite regulation (satiety). A high of leptin to adiponectin ratio (LAR) is associated with diminished anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidative properties, and endothelial dysfunction. There is increased concern with respect to CVD when a high LAR is concomitant with elevated hsCRP (3-10 mg/L).

Lab – Doctor’s Data

ClickSample Report

 

The Metabolomic Profile provides assessment of the likelihood of Metabolic syndrome in at-risk patients.  The Metabolomic Profile evaluates seven biomarkers that may reflect a patient’s risk of developing Metabolic syndrome, which is identified by a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and adiposity as its central features. Identification of individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of and type 2 diabetes mellitus, renal damage and coronary heart disease. Early detection of risk for Metabolic Syndrome is very important because associated symptoms may not be evident until it is well advanced.
 

Detailed Information:

Doctor’s Data offers the Metabolomic Profile due to increasing awareness of the need to detect Metabolic syndrome before it progresses to adult-onset diabetes and related health consequences. The profile is designed to assess the likelihood of Metabolic syndrome (MetS) in at-risk patients.  Metabolic syndrome may occur at all stages in life.  The number of people with MetS has increased over the last two decades. It is estimated that greater than 18% of US adolescents, 30% of young – midlife adults, and 40% of senior adults (> 70 y.o.) have MetS.  

The incidents of MetS is increasing at an alarming rate. Controllable epigenetic factors clearly have a causal role.  Contributing factors may include obesity, insulin resistance, polycystic ovary disease, hormone imbalance or a sedentary, unhealthy (smoking, etc.) lifestyle.    “Over nutrition” and poor dietary choices (highly processed, high fat, high salt, high sugar “empty-calorie” foods), combined with sedentary habits interact with our genetic programming: we store extra calories as fat.  Fat cells (adipocytes) produce hormones (adipokines) that interact with the hypothalamus and or immune system and may have pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory effects.  Altered adipokine levels have been observed in MetS.  Insulin (fasting) resistance is a hallmark feature of MetS. The biomarkers that constitute the Metabolomic Profile include:

Glycomark (1,5-anhydroglucitol) –indicates poor control of blood glucose spikes; specifically frequent hyperglycemic events over the past two weeks (not evident from HbA1c). Postprandial hyperglycemia is associated with Cardiovascular disease and reduction of hyperglycemic events appear to decrease macro- and microvascular complications in diabetic patients. Low 1,5-AG is also associated with renal damage. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) – estimates the average blood glucose concentration for the life of the red blood cell (120 days)

Insulin – levels of insulin elevate early in type II diabetes, and then decrease as pancreatic beta cells lose function.

Leptin – is a hormone produced by adipocytes to provide a satiety signal to the hypothalamus. Elevated circulating levels of leptin are associated with adipose tissue abundance and a leptin resistance. High levels of this adipokine  have pro-inflammatory effects, and leptin accelerates arterial foam cell formation. Adiponectin – improves insulin sensitivity and stimulates glucose uptake and hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Very low levels of this anti-inflammatory adipokine may increase the risk forCVD and some cancers.

Leptin to Adiponectin ratio– the ratio of leptin to adiponectin appears to be a sensitive indicator for a variety of adverse health conditions.

Cystatin C, Creatinine and eGFR – renal damage is a common consequence of MetS and hyperglycemia. Cystatin C is considered to be a better indicator of GFR than serum creatinine or calculated GFR (eGFR).

Patients that may especially benefit from the Metabolomic Profile include those with:

  • Excess abdominal adiposity or body mass index (BMI) >30
  • High triglycerides or need for cholesterol medication
  • Low HDL cholesterol or need for cholesterol medication
  • Hypertension or need for hypertension medication
  • Fasting Glucose > 100 mg/dL
  • Family or personal history of cardiovascular disease, high cholesterol or type II diabetes
  • Personal history of chronic inflammatory disease

Except for obesity, the risk factors for MetS, and the chronic diseases that may develop from it, may present no symptoms until well advanced.  The greatest window of opportunity to prevent the development of atherosclerosis, type II diabetes, renal damage or heart failure may occur during the early, symptom-free stages of MetS.  Early detection and intervention through diet and lifestyle changes may prevent the development of symptoms or disease complications. The Metabolomic Profile facilitates clinicians in the early detection of Metabolic syndrome.

Lab – Doctor’s Data

ClickSample Report

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